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Popes & Anti-Popes AD 1100-1200

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(mouseover timeline to select a century)

Alphabetical list of Popes

96    Adrian I  (772-75)
107  Adrian II (867-872)
110  S. Adrian III (884-885)
168  Adrian IV  (1154-9)
185
  Adrian V  (1276)
217
 Adrian VI  (1522-3)
57
    S. Agapitus  (535-6)
130
  Agapitus II (946-955)
79
    S. Agatho  (678-81)
6    S. Alexander (105-115)
155  Alexander II (1061-73)
169
 Alexander III (1159-81)
180
 Alexander IV  (1254-61)
anti-pope  Alexander V
213
  Alexander VI (1492-1503)
236
 Alexander VII (1655-67)
240
 Alexander VIII (1689-91)
3.
    S. Anacletus  (76-93)
39.
  S. Anastasius  (399-401)
50.
 Anastasius  II (496-98)
121
.  Anastasius III  (911-13)
167.
  Anastasius IV  (1153-4)
11.
 S. Anicetus  (155-166)
19.  S. Anterus  (236)

62
  Benedict I  (575-9)
81.
  S. Benedict II (684-5)
105
.  Benedict III  (655-8)
118.
  Benedict IV  (900-903)
133.
  Benedict V  (964-6)
135.
  Benedict VI  (973-4)
136
.  Benedict VII  (974-83)
144.  Benedict VIII  (1012-24)
146.
  Benedict IX  (1042)
anti-pope  Benedict X  (1058)
193.
  Benedict XI (1303-4)
196.
  Benedict XII (1335-42)
244.
  Benedict XIII (1724-30)
246.
  Benedict XIV (1740-58)
247.
  Benedict XV  (1914-22)
42.
  S. Boniface  I  (418-22)
55.  Boniface II (530-2)
66
.  Boniface III (607)
67.  S. Boniface IV  (608-15)
69.
  Boniface V  (619-25)
113.  Boniface VI  (896)
anti-pope
 Boniface  VII (974)
192.  Boniface VIII (1294-1303)
202.  Boniface IX (1389-1404)

28.
 S. Caius  ( 283-96)
16.
 S. Callistus  ( 217-22)
161.
 Callistus  II  ( 1119-24)
208.
 Calistus III  ( 1455-58)
43.
  S. Celestine I ( 422-32)
164.  Celestine II  ( 1143-4)
174.
  Celestine III  ( 1191-8)
178.  Celestine IV  ( 1241)
191.
  Celestine V  ( 1294)
4.
   S. Clement I  ( c.91-101)
149.
 Clement II  (1046-7)
173.  Clement III  ( 1187-91)
182.
  Clement IV  (1265-8)
194.  Clement V  ( 1305-14)
197.
 Clement VI  ( 1342-52)
218.
 Clement VII  ( 1523-34)
230.
 Clement VIII  ( 1592-1605)
237.
 Clement IX  ( 1667-9)
238.
 Clement X  ( 1670-6)
242.  Clement  XI  ( 1700-21)
245.
 Clement XII  ( 1730-40)
247.  Clement XIII  ( 1758-69)
248.
  Clement XIV  ( 1769-74)
83.   Conon  ( 686-7)
21.
  S. Cornelius  ( 251-3)
88.
   Constantine I  ( 708-15)

37.
 S. Damasus I  ( 366-84)
150.  Damasus  II  ( 1048)
68.
St. Deusdedit (615-18)
25.   Dionysios  ( 260-8)
78.   Donus  (676-8)

13.
 S. Eleutherus  (175-89)
75.
 S. Eugenius I  ( 654-7)
100.
 Eugenius  II  ( 824-7)
166.
  Eugenius III  (1145-53)
206.
  Eugenius  IV (1431-47)
31.
  Eusebius  ( 310)
27.
  S. Eutychian  (275-83)
5.
  Evaristus  (101-9)

20.
 Fabian  (236-50)
26. 
Felix I  (269-74)
anti-pope  Felix II (355-65)
48.
 S. Felix  III (483-492)
54.
 S. Felix  IV  (526-30)
anti-pope 
Felix V (1439-49)
112
.  Formosus  (891-96)

49.
St Gelasius (492-6)
160.
Gelasius II (1118-9) 
64. Gregory I (590-604)
89.
Gregory II  (715-31)
90.
Gregory III (731-41)
102.
Gregory IV (827-44)
139.
Gregory V (996-9)
anti-pope  Gregory VI  (1012)
148.
Gregory VI (1045-6)
156.
Gregory VII (1073-85)
anti-pope
  Gregory VIII (1187)
172.
Gregory VIII (1187)
177. Gregory IX  (1227-41)
183. Gregory X  (1271-6)
200.
Gregory XI (1370-8)
204.
Gregory XII (1405-15)
225.
Gregory XIII  (1527-85)
228.
Gregory XIV  (1590-1)
233.
Gregory XV  (1621-3)
253.
Gregory XVI  (1831-46)

46.
Hilarus  (461-8)
anti-pope 
Hippolytus  (217-35)
70.
Honorius I  (625-38)
anti-pope
  Honorius II (1061-4)
162. Honorius II  (1124-30)
176. Honorius III  (1216-27)
189.
Honorius IV  (1285-7)
52. Hormisdas  (514-23)
9. St.Hyginus  (c. 138-42)

40.
Innocent I  (401-17)
163.
Innocent II  (1130-41)
anti-pope  Innocent III (1179-80)
175.
Innocent III  (1198-1216)
179.
Innocent IV  (1243-54)
184.
Innocent V  (1276)
198.
Innocent VI (1352-62)
203.
Innocent VII (1404-6)
212.
Innocent VIII  (1484-92)
229.
Innocent IX  (1591)
235.
Innocent X  (1644-55)
239.
Innocent XI  (1676-89)
241. Innocent XII  (1691-1700)
243.
Innocent XIII  (1721-4)

53.
John I  (523-6)
56. John II  (533-5)
61. John III  (561-74)
72.
John IV  (640-2)
82.
John V  (685-6)
85.
John VI  (701-5)
86.
John VII  (705-7
anti-pope
 John  (844)
108
. John VIII  (872-82)
117. John IX  (898-900)
123.
John X  (914-28)
126.
John XI  (931-6)
131.
John XII  (955-64)
134.
John XIII (965-72)
137,
John XIV  (983-4)
138.
John XV  (985-96)
anti-pope  John XVI  (997-8)
141. John XVII  (1003)
142.
John XVIII  (1003-9)
145. John XIX  (1024-32)
186.
John XXI  (1276-7)
195.
John XXII  (1316-34)
anti-pope
  John XXIII  (1410-15)
260.
John XXIII   (1958-63)
262.
John Paul I  (1978)
263.
John Paul II (1978-2005)
35.
Julius I  (337-52)
215.
Julius II  (1503-13)
220.
Julius III (1550-5)

122.
Lando  (913-14)
anti-pope
  Laurentius (498-9; 501-6)
45.
Leo I (440-61)
80. Leo II  (682-3)
97.
St Leo III (795-816)
104.
St Leo IV  (847-55)
119. Leo V  (903)
124. Leo VI (928)
127.
Leo VII  (936-9)
132.
Leo VIII (963-5)
151. Leo IX  (1049-54)
216. Leo X  (1513-21)
231.
Leo XI  (1605)
250.
Leo XII  (1823-9)
255.
Leo XIII (1878-1903)
36.
Liberius  (352-66)
2.
 Linus  (c. 66-78)
22. St. Lucius I  (253-4)
165.
Lucius II  (1144-5)
170.
Lucius III  (1181-5)

29.
Marcellinus  (c.296-304)
30. Marcellus I  (306-8)
221. Marcellus II  (1555)
109.
Marinus I (Martin II) (882-4)
129.
Marinus II  (Martin III) (942-6)
34. St Mark  (336)
74.
Martin I  (649-53)
188.
Martin IV  (1281-5)
205. Martin V  (1417-31)
32.
Miltiades  (311-14)

106.
St Nicholas  (858-67)
154.
Nicholas II  (1056-61)
187.
Nicholas III  (1277-80)
190.
Nicholas IV  (1288-92)
anti-pope  Nicholas V  (1328-30)
207.
Nicholas V  (1447-55)
anti-pope
Novatian  (251-8)

anti-pope 
Paschal  (687)
99. Paschal I  (817-24)
159.
Paschal II  (1099-1118)
anti-pope
  Paschal III  (1164-8)
94.
St Paul  (757-67)
210.
Paul II  (1464-71)
219.
Paul III  (1534-49)
222. Paul IV  (1555-9)
232.
Paul V  (1605-21)
261. Paul VI  (1963-78)
60.
Pelagius  (556-61)
63.
Pelagius II  (579-90)
1.  St. Peter (died c. 64)
anti-pope  Philip  (768)
10.
St Pius I  (c. 142-55)
209.
 Pius II  (1458-64)
214.
 Pius III  (1503)
223.
Pius IV  (1559-65)
224.
St Pius V  (1566-72)
249.
Pius VI  (1775-99)
250.
Pius VII  (1800-23)
252.
Pius VIII  (1829-30)
254.
Pius IX  (1846-78)
256.
St Pius X  (1903-14)
258.
Pius XI  (1922-39)
259.
Pius XII  (1939-58)
18.
St Pontian  (230-5)

115.
Romanus  (897)

65.
Sabinian  (604-6)
84. Sergius I  (687-701)
103.
Sergius II  (844-7)
120. Sergius III  (904-11)
143.
Sergius IV  (1009-12)
71. Severinus  (640)
58.
Silverius  (536-7)
33. Sylvester i  (314-35)
140. Sylvester II  (999-1003)
147.
Sylvester III (1045)
anti-pope
  Sylvester IV (1105-11)
47.
St Simplicius  (468-83)
38.
Siricius  (384-99)
87.
Sisinnius  (708)
7.
Sixtus I  (c.116-125)
24.
Sixtus II  (257-8)
44.
St Sixtus  III  (432-40)
211.
Sixtus IV  (1471-84)
226.
Sixtus V (1585-90)
12.
St  Soter  (c. 166-74)
23.
Stephen I  (254-7)
92. Stephen II  (752-7)
95.
Stephen III (768-72)
98.
Stephen IV  (816-17)
111. Stephen V  (885-91)
114.
Stephen VI  (896-7)
125.
Stephen VII  (928-31)
128.
Stephen VIII  (939-42)
153.
Stephen IX  (1057-8)
51.
St. Symmachus  (498-514)

8.
Telesphorus  (125-136)
73. Theodore I  (642-9)
anti-pope
  Theodore  (687)
116.
Theodore II  (897)
anti-pope  Theodoric  (1100-1)

17.
St. Urban I (222-30)
158
. Urban II  (1088-99)
171.
Urban III  (1185-7)
181. Urban IV  (1261-4)
199.
Urban V  (1362-70)
201.
Urban VI  (1378-89)
227.
Urban VII  (1590)
234.
Urban VIII  (1623-44)
anti-pope
 Ursinus  (366-7)

101.
Valentine  (827)
14.
St. Victor I  (189-98)
152. Victor II  (1055-7)
157.
Victor III  (1086-7)
anti-pope
 Victor IV  (1138)
anti-pope
  Victor V  (1159-64)
59.
Vigilius  (537-55)
76. St. Vitalian  (657-72)

91.
Zacharias  (741-52)
15.
Zephyrinus  (198-217)
41.
St. Zosimus  (417-18)

 

The Popes, in chronological order

AD 1100-1200

anti-pope  Theodoric (1100)
anti-pope  Albert  (1102)
anti-pope  Sylvester IV (1105-1111)

160. Gelasius II. b. Gaeta; elected 10 March 1118; d. 28 Jan. 1119. He was formerly a monk at Monte Cassino and a biographer of saints. A strong ally of his predecessor, he had been promoted to an influential administrative job by Pope Urban II. He was attacked and jailed immediately after his election by the Roman noble, Cencius Frangipani, and upon his release fled Rome. After the pope declined to meet with Henry V, the emperor proclaimed the archbishop Maurice of Bragia as (anti) pope Gregory VIII who in return crowned Henry. Though Pope Gelasius excommunicated Henry in retaliation, he was unable to regain control and subsequently took refuge in France.  "The great characteristic of the 12th century is the conflict between church and state  centering mainly on the struggle between the popes and the Holy Roman Empire" (tP).

anti-pope  Gregory VIII  (1118-21)

161. Callistus II. b. France as Guido; elected 8 Feb 1119; d. 13 Dec 1124. Archbishop of Vienne and the son of a Burgundian count with numerous royal connections, he was endorsed by the Emperor Henry V who then abandoned Gregory. The anti-pope was subsequently humilated and jailed by Pope Callistus who promply declared investiture by laymen (meaning kings and emperors) to be a heresy. The long-standing dispute over who had dominion over the other was resolved, at least for a while, in 1122 by the famous  Concordat (Pactum Calixtinum ) at the German town of Worms when the emperor conceded on the pope's solitary right to bestow ring and crozier upon imperial bishops. It was agreed that electoral disputes were henceforth to be arbitrated by the emperor. 12th c. mosaic in S Maria in Trastevere.

anti-pope  Celestine  (1124)

162.  Honorius II. b. Fiagnano; elected 21 Sept 1124; d. 13 Feb, 1130. On the death of Callistus, the powerful Roman banking Pierleoni family pushed through the election of Cardinal Teobaldo as Pope Celestine. He, however,  was fatally injured in a struggle with armed members of the rival Frangipani family who elected the Ostia cardinal Lamberto Scannabecchi as Pope Honorius.  The new pope supported Germany's Count Lothair for king by excommunicating the rival Lombard king Conrad and Archbishop Anselm of Milan (who had crowned him) but battled with the Normans in southern Italy.  Honorius strengthened relations with Sicily's Roger II  and with France's King Louis VI, to the displeasure of the increasingly influential Bernard who, at 24, had been made abbot of Clairvaux and who had practically founded the Cistercian Order in 1113.

163. Innocent II. b.Rome; elected 23 Feb 1130; d. 24 Sept 1143. When Honorius died, papal chancellor Aimeric and other reformers secretly elected the cardinal deacon Gregorio Papareschi as Pope Innocent II, but a rival group of cardinals countered with the election of Cardinal Pietro Pierleoni of Sta. Maria in Trastevere as Anacletus II. Although Anacletus  was denounced at a Lateran Council,  it was he  who, with aristocratic and Norman backing, dominated Rome. This was despite Innocent's support by the Saxon  king Lothair III and by Bernard of Clairvaux who wrote; "Driven from the city, he is welcomed by the world". But later, from his base at Pisa, Innocent ("in political skill markedly superior"--ODP) excommunicated Anacletus and, at his rival's  death in 1138, suborned the supporters of another short-lived Pierleoni candidate, Cardinal Gregorio Conti, who had termed himself Pope Victor IV. Innocent exchanged scores of letters with Bernard who repeatedly spurned higher ecclesiastical office. With Innocent's endorsement, the Italian monk and jurist Francisco Gratian compiled the Decretum Gratiani. which proved to be the durable standard reference book for ecclesiastical tribunals.
12th c. mosaic in S. Maria in Trastevere.

anti-pope  Anacletus II (1130-8)
anti-pope  Victor IV (1138)

164. Celestine II. b. Citta di Castello; elected. 3 Oct 1143; d. 8 March 1144. Promoted in office successively by the previous three popes, his election was unaminous and approved by  Emperor Henry VI's widow who appointed him guardian of her son. In his short term, he was able to restore relations with France's Louis VII and tried to bring peace between England and Scotland.

165. Lucius II. b. Bologna as Gherardo Caccianemici; elected 12 March 1144; d. 15 Feb 1145. A cardinal priest who succeeded Aimeric as chancellor and librarian, he was opposed by Rome's independent commune now led by the brother of anti-pope Anacletus. While leading an attack on them, he was killed by a flying stone before replying to an invective-filled plea from Bernard of Clairvaux asking the pope's support for his candidate, Henry Murdoch, as the new archbishop of York. Despite his saintly reputation  ("his voice was the most trusted and authoritative in Europe") Bernard chose to describe a supporter of Henry's rival--who got the job-- as "that man, that enemy, a forerunner of Satan, a son of perdition, an adversary of law and right...that ancient seducer").

166. Eugene III. b. :Pisa as Bernardo Pignatelli; elected 18 Feb 1145, d. 8 July 1153. A Cistercian monk he had studied under the celebrated Abbot Bernard of Clairvaux whom he appointed as his counselor when he became pope. "Bernard's influence was so strong in the Curia", saysS&S,that the cardinals grumbled that Bernard was pope and not Eugenius". Nevertheless, when the pope withdrew the pallium from the Archbishop of Rheims for crowning Louis, king of France, Bernard wrote him: "May God forgive you! What have you done? You have shamed the face of one of the most conscientious of men and humiliated in the face of the Church one whose praise is in the church..."
   Responding to the Turkish capture of a Christian outpost, Eugene  initiated the Second Crusade calling on "those who are of God... to  oppose the multitude of infidels, who rejoice at the time in  a victory gained over us" . The crusade was a failure despite French and German support. Eugene excommunicated the dissident cleric Arnold of Breschia who advocated a return to early church simplicity and poverty and termed the pope "a man of blood". Eugene conducted several foreign synods and forged an alliance with Germany's new king Barbarossa. Increasingly cardinals were to be recruited from outside Italy, a move endorsed by the reformer Bernard of Clairvaux who asked: "Surely they who are to judge the whole world must be chosen from the whole world?"

167. Anastasius IV. b. Rome; elected 12 July 1153; d. 3 Dec 1154, aged about 80. As cardinal bishop Corrado, he had supported Pope Innocent against Anacletus and was elected pope immediately on the death of his predecessor. A pacifier of warring factions in the church,  he  made peace with the Roman commune and settled a lengthy dispute over the archbishop of Canterbury by sending the pallium to William Fitzherbert.

168. Hadrian IV. b. England as Nicholas Breakspear; elected 5 Dec 1154; d. 1 Nov. 1159, aged about 44. A monk who became abbot at Avignon he had served as  papal legate to Scandinavia (where he restructured the church) for  Pope Eugene III who appointed him cardinal bishop of Albano. He crowned as  Emperor Frederick I,  Germany's  Barbarossa, whom he had rescued from an angry mob led by the radical monk Arnold Breschia who averred that the papacy was corrupt.  Hadrian  had Arnold  expelled from Rome and later executed. The pope and the emperor sparred  over the latter's claim to northern Italy and his choice for archbishop of Ravenna. Further disputes came over  Hadrian's recognition of William I as king of Sicily and most of the land south of Rome, as well as his support for the Lombards who were planniung a revolt against the emperor.

169. Alexander III. b. Siena as Orlando Bandinelli; elected 20 Sept 1159; d. 20 Aug 1181, aged about 70. He had been a law professor at Bologna, author of religious works, canon of Pisa and Hadrian's closest advisor. At Alexander's election -- supported by France's Louis VII and England's Henry II-- a rival group backed by the emperor elected Cardinal Ottaviano as Victor IV, and on his  death, cardinal priest Guido as Paschal III. The latter accompanied Barbarossa to Rome forcing the pope's flight to France. Alexander excommunicated Barbarossa and then, with the aid of the Lombard League (22 Italian cities), defeated him at Lugano, a symptom of  the growing distaste in Europe for imperial dominance over the papacy. 
   After Paschal's death, stubborn imperialists elected two other antipopes, neither of whom received much support from the emperor, and both of whom subsequently abandoned their roles. Alexander who in 1179 presided over Lateran Council III (which decreed a two-thirds majority of cardinals at papal conclaves was needed to elect a new pope) and updated Gratian's judicial rules, was described by ODP as "the first great lawyer pope"  (who) "left a lasting mark on the church", including the issuance of hundreds of decretals (legal decisions). His support for Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury, in his rows with King Henry II, was cautiously ambiguous but after Becket's murder and the king's "consquent penance (he was) in a position to call Henry to order" (S&S).
Depicted in 15th c. mural by Spinello Aretino in Siena's Plazzo Publico

anti-pope  Victor IV  (1159-64)
anti-pope  Paschal III  (1164-68)
anti-pope  Callistus III (1168-1178)
anti-pope  Innocent III  (1179-80)

170. Lucius III b. Lucca as Ubaldo Allucingoli; elected 6 Sept 1181. d. 25 Sept 1185, aged 74. A Cistercian monk who had served under Bernard of Clairvaux, he had been cardinal bishop of Ostia. Despite rejecting Barbarossa's request to crown his son Henry, he was able to make peace with the emperor and collaborated with him on a drive against heresy ("sometimes called the charter of the Inquisition" --ODP). Riots forced Lucius out of the city to Verona where he died..

171. Urban III. b. Milanas Umberto Crivelli.; elected 1 Dec. 1185. d. 20 Oct. 1187. Promoted by his predecessor to archbishop of Milan, he was elected in Verona from where he ran the papacy. Battling with Barbarossa over the emperor's choice of a candidate for archbishop of Trier, he was forced to give way when Barbarossa's son, Henry VI threatened to invade. ISPRsays he "died of sorrow when the Saracens took possession of Jerusalem"

172. Gregory VIII. b. Benevento as Alberto de Morra; elected 25 Oct 1187; d. 17 Dec 1187 aged 77. Chancellor of the Roman church, he was a cardinal and law professor who called  upon the clergy to live a simpler life. He was on the verge of settling the dispute with Barbarossa, but died after only a few weeks in office.

173. Clement III. b. Rome as Paolo Scolari. elected  20 Dec 1187; d. March 1191 Cardinal bishop of what is now Palestrina, when elected as pope he first made peace with the Roman commune, returning the papacy to the Lateran Palace.Then at Strasbourg he forged a treaty  with the emperor that restored the papal state and cleared the way for.the Third Crusade (in which England's King Richard participated).

174. Celestine III. b. Rome as Giacinto Bobo;. elected 14 April 1191; d. 8 Jan 1198, aged 92. He initially restored good relations with Henry VI whom he reluctantly crowned emperor, but later disputed with him over clerical appointments and Henry's imprisonment of the returning crusader, England's Richard I. After capturing Sicily and the Norman territories of southern Italy, Henry attempted to curtail papal influence there, but died in 1196 soon after reasserting control. The Liber Censuum, which listed all sources of papal funding,  ("a powerful tool of centralisation."-S&S) was compiled by Celestine's chamberlain
Painting by Dom de Bartolo, S. Maria della Scala, Siena.

175. Innocent III  b. Anagni as Lothario Scotti; elected 22 Feb. 1198; d. 16 July 1216, aged 55. Created cardinal by his uncle, Pope Clement III, he was only 37 when elected. "A young and ambitious priest (who)...excercised  a despotic command over the emperors and kings whom he raised and deposed" (D&F). He enlarged the papal states after establishing good relations with Henry VI's widow. She  made him guardian of her son, the future emperor Frederick II, who "was successively the pupil, the enemy and the victim of the church" (D&F). A prolific writer, Innocent had been  author of numerous devotional treatises even before becoming pontiff. Crowning Germany's Otto IV as emperor, he declared that "the priesthood is as much superior to royalty as the soul is to the body", and when Otto invaded Sicily the pope excommunicated him. Innocent forced England's King John to give way over his choice of Archbishop of Canterbury  but then declared the Magna Carta to be  an intrusion on papal authority. And to France's adulterous king, Philip Augustus, he wrote: "The Holy See cannot leave persecuted women without defense; the dignity of a king does not dispense you from your duties as a Christian".
   Unsuccessful in converting the ascetic Albigensian sect, Innocent organized a crusade against them and turned their leaders over to the deadly Inquisition. Promising to "set the Jew apart", he forced Jews to wear distinctive clothing. The pope united the kings of Castile, Aragon and Navarre in the Fourth Crusade  which in 1204 ravaged Constantinople. Renowned for his expertise in canon law, Innocent issued scores of decretals, most of them ratified by the heavily-attended Lateran Council of 1215 whose decisions favored his themes of reform and crusade but also outlawed the deadly crossbow and prohibited trial by ordeal. "A man born to rule uniting exceptional gifts of intellect and  character with determ-ination, flexibility, rare skill in handling men and humaneness" summarisesODP
Fresco by Giotto at Assisi. Mural in San Speco, Subiaco.

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Index of References

OTHER BOOKS consulted or quoted from include:

The Golden Legend (GL);
Butler's Lives of the Saints  (B);
A Catholic Dictionary
(ACD);
The Popes' Rights & Wrongs
  (PRW);
History of the Popes
  (HP);
The Dictionary of Sects, Heresies
&c (DSH);
History of the Popes
  by Leonard Van Renke (LVR);
A Biographical Dictionary of the Saints  (BDS);
The Book of Popes
(BP);
A Source Book 
(SB) for Ancient Church History;
Saints & Their Emblems in English Churches
 (StE);
A Catholic Dictionary
-(CD);
The Popes, a concise biographical history
, (tP);
The Bad Popes
  (TBP);
The Penguin Dictionary of the Saints  (PDS);
New Catholic Encyclopedia (NCE);
The Decline & Fall of the Roman Empire  (D&F);
the Oxford Dictionary of Popes (ODP);
Somni Pontifici Romani
  (ISPR);
the Book of Saints  (BS);
Saints & Sinners (S&S).

For a complete list of references, click here.