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Popes & Anti-Popes AD 1400-1500

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Alphabetical list of Popes

96    Adrian I  (772-75)
107  Adrian II (867-872)
110  S. Adrian III (884-885)
168  Adrian IV  (1154-9)
185
  Adrian V  (1276)
217
 Adrian VI  (1522-3)
57
    S. Agapitus  (535-6)
130
  Agapitus II (946-955)
79
    S. Agatho  (678-81)
6    S. Alexander (105-115)
155  Alexander II (1061-73)
169
 Alexander III (1159-81)
180
 Alexander IV  (1254-61)
anti-pope  Alexander V
213
  Alexander VI (1492-1503)
236
 Alexander VII (1655-67)
240
 Alexander VIII (1689-91)
3.
    S. Anacletus  (76-93)
39.
  S. Anastasius  (399-401)
50.
 Anastasius  II (496-98)
121
.  Anastasius III  (911-13)
167.
  Anastasius IV  (1153-4)
11.
 S. Anicetus  (155-166)
19.  S. Anterus  (236)

62
  Benedict I  (575-9)
81.
  S. Benedict II (684-5)
105
.  Benedict III  (655-8)
118.
  Benedict IV  (900-903)
133.
  Benedict V  (964-6)
135.
  Benedict VI  (973-4)
136
.  Benedict VII  (974-83)
144.  Benedict VIII  (1012-24)
146.
  Benedict IX  (1042)
anti-pope  Benedict X  (1058)
193.
  Benedict XI (1303-4)
196.
  Benedict XII (1335-42)
244.
  Benedict XIII (1724-30)
246.
  Benedict XIV (1740-58)
247.
  Benedict XV  (1914-22)
42.
  S. Boniface  I  (418-22)
55.  Boniface II (530-2)
66
.  Boniface III (607)
67.  S. Boniface IV  (608-15)
69.
  Boniface V  (619-25)
113.  Boniface VI  (896)
anti-pope
 Boniface  VII (974)
192.  Boniface VIII (1294-1303)
202.  Boniface IX (1389-1404)

28.
 S. Caius  ( 283-96)
16.
 S. Callistus  ( 217-22)
161.
 Callistus  II  ( 1119-24)
208.
 Calistus III  ( 1455-58)
43.
  S. Celestine I ( 422-32)
164.  Celestine II  ( 1143-4)
174.
  Celestine III  ( 1191-8)
178.  Celestine IV  ( 1241)
191.
  Celestine V  ( 1294)
4.
   S. Clement I  ( c.91-101)
149.
 Clement II  (1046-7)
173.  Clement III  ( 1187-91)
182.
  Clement IV  (1265-8)
194.  Clement V  ( 1305-14)
197.
 Clement VI  ( 1342-52)
218.
 Clement VII  ( 1523-34)
230.
 Clement VIII  ( 1592-1605)
237.
 Clement IX  ( 1667-9)
238.
 Clement X  ( 1670-6)
242.  Clement  XI  ( 1700-21)
245.
 Clement XII  ( 1730-40)
247.  Clement XIII  ( 1758-69)
248.
  Clement XIV  ( 1769-74)
83.   Conon  ( 686-7)
21.
  S. Cornelius  ( 251-3)
88.
   Constantine I  ( 708-15)

37.
 S. Damasus I  ( 366-84)
150.  Damasus  II  ( 1048)
68.
St. Deusdedit (615-18)
25.   Dionysios  ( 260-8)
78.   Donus  (676-8)

13.
 S. Eleutherus  (175-89)
75.
 S. Eugenius I  ( 654-7)
100.
 Eugenius  II  ( 824-7)
166.
  Eugenius III  (1145-53)
206.
  Eugenius  IV (1431-47)
31.
  Eusebius  ( 310)
27.
  S. Eutychian  (275-83)
5.
  Evaristus  (101-9)

20.
 Fabian  (236-50)
26. 
Felix I  (269-74)
anti-pope  Felix II (355-65)
48.
 S. Felix  III (483-492)
54.
 S. Felix  IV  (526-30)
anti-pope 
Felix V (1439-49)
112
.  Formosus  (891-96)

49.
St Gelasius (492-6)
160.
Gelasius II (1118-9) 
64. Gregory I (590-604)
89.
Gregory II  (715-31)
90.
Gregory III (731-41)
102.
Gregory IV (827-44)
139.
Gregory V (996-9)
anti-pope  Gregory VI  (1012)
148.
Gregory VI (1045-6)
156.
Gregory VII (1073-85)
anti-pope
  Gregory VIII (1187)
172.
Gregory VIII (1187)
177. Gregory IX  (1227-41)
183. Gregory X  (1271-6)
200.
Gregory XI (1370-8)
204.
Gregory XII (1405-15)
225.
Gregory XIII  (1527-85)
228.
Gregory XIV  (1590-1)
233.
Gregory XV  (1621-3)
253.
Gregory XVI  (1831-46)

46.
Hilarus  (461-8)
anti-pope 
Hippolytus  (217-35)
70.
Honorius I  (625-38)
anti-pope
  Honorius II (1061-4)
162. Honorius II  (1124-30)
176. Honorius III  (1216-27)
189.
Honorius IV  (1285-7)
52. Hormisdas  (514-23)
9. St.Hyginus  (c. 138-42)

40.
Innocent I  (401-17)
163.
Innocent II  (1130-41)
anti-pope  Innocent III (1179-80)
175.
Innocent III  (1198-1216)
179.
Innocent IV  (1243-54)
184.
Innocent V  (1276)
198.
Innocent VI (1352-62)
203.
Innocent VII (1404-6)
212.
Innocent VIII  (1484-92)
229.
Innocent IX  (1591)
235.
Innocent X  (1644-55)
239.
Innocent XI  (1676-89)
241. Innocent XII  (1691-1700)
243.
Innocent XIII  (1721-4)

53.
John I  (523-6)
56. John II  (533-5)
61. John III  (561-74)
72.
John IV  (640-2)
82.
John V  (685-6)
85.
John VI  (701-5)
86.
John VII  (705-7
anti-pope
 John  (844)
108
. John VIII  (872-82)
117. John IX  (898-900)
123.
John X  (914-28)
126.
John XI  (931-6)
131.
John XII  (955-64)
134.
John XIII (965-72)
137,
John XIV  (983-4)
138.
John XV  (985-96)
anti-pope  John XVI  (997-8)
141. John XVII  (1003)
142.
John XVIII  (1003-9)
145. John XIX  (1024-32)
186.
John XXI  (1276-7)
195.
John XXII  (1316-34)
anti-pope
  John XXIII  (1410-15)
260.
John XXIII   (1958-63)
262.
John Paul I  (1978)
263.
John Paul II (1978-2005)
35.
Julius I  (337-52)
215.
Julius II  (1503-13)
220.
Julius III (1550-5)

122.
Lando  (913-14)
anti-pope
  Laurentius (498-9; 501-6)
45.
Leo I (440-61)
80. Leo II  (682-3)
97.
St Leo III (795-816)
104.
St Leo IV  (847-55)
119. Leo V  (903)
124. Leo VI (928)
127.
Leo VII  (936-9)
132.
Leo VIII (963-5)
151. Leo IX  (1049-54)
216. Leo X  (1513-21)
231.
Leo XI  (1605)
250.
Leo XII  (1823-9)
255.
Leo XIII (1878-1903)
36.
Liberius  (352-66)
2.
 Linus  (c. 66-78)
22. St. Lucius I  (253-4)
165.
Lucius II  (1144-5)
170.
Lucius III  (1181-5)

29.
Marcellinus  (c.296-304)
30. Marcellus I  (306-8)
221. Marcellus II  (1555)
109.
Marinus I (Martin II) (882-4)
129.
Marinus II  (Martin III) (942-6)
34. St Mark  (336)
74.
Martin I  (649-53)
188.
Martin IV  (1281-5)
205. Martin V  (1417-31)
32.
Miltiades  (311-14)

106.
St Nicholas  (858-67)
154.
Nicholas II  (1056-61)
187.
Nicholas III  (1277-80)
190.
Nicholas IV  (1288-92)
anti-pope  Nicholas V  (1328-30)
207.
Nicholas V  (1447-55)
anti-pope
Novatian  (251-8)

anti-pope 
Paschal  (687)
99. Paschal I  (817-24)
159.
Paschal II  (1099-1118)
anti-pope
  Paschal III  (1164-8)
94.
St Paul  (757-67)
210.
Paul II  (1464-71)
219.
Paul III  (1534-49)
222. Paul IV  (1555-9)
232.
Paul V  (1605-21)
261. Paul VI  (1963-78)
60.
Pelagius  (556-61)
63.
Pelagius II  (579-90)
1.  St. Peter (died c. 64)
anti-pope  Philip  (768)
10.
St Pius I  (c. 142-55)
209.
 Pius II  (1458-64)
214.
 Pius III  (1503)
223.
Pius IV  (1559-65)
224.
St Pius V  (1566-72)
249.
Pius VI  (1775-99)
250.
Pius VII  (1800-23)
252.
Pius VIII  (1829-30)
254.
Pius IX  (1846-78)
256.
St Pius X  (1903-14)
258.
Pius XI  (1922-39)
259.
Pius XII  (1939-58)
18.
St Pontian  (230-5)

115.
Romanus  (897)

65.
Sabinian  (604-6)
84. Sergius I  (687-701)
103.
Sergius II  (844-7)
120. Sergius III  (904-11)
143.
Sergius IV  (1009-12)
71. Severinus  (640)
58.
Silverius  (536-7)
33. Sylvester i  (314-35)
140. Sylvester II  (999-1003)
147.
Sylvester III (1045)
anti-pope
  Sylvester IV (1105-11)
47.
St Simplicius  (468-83)
38.
Siricius  (384-99)
87.
Sisinnius  (708)
7.
Sixtus I  (c.116-125)
24.
Sixtus II  (257-8)
44.
St Sixtus  III  (432-40)
211.
Sixtus IV  (1471-84)
226.
Sixtus V (1585-90)
12.
St  Soter  (c. 166-74)
23.
Stephen I  (254-7)
92. Stephen II  (752-7)
95.
Stephen III (768-72)
98.
Stephen IV  (816-17)
111. Stephen V  (885-91)
114.
Stephen VI  (896-7)
125.
Stephen VII  (928-31)
128.
Stephen VIII  (939-42)
153.
Stephen IX  (1057-8)
51.
St. Symmachus  (498-514)

8.
Telesphorus  (125-136)
73. Theodore I  (642-9)
anti-pope
  Theodore  (687)
116.
Theodore II  (897)
anti-pope  Theodoric  (1100-1)

17.
St. Urban I (222-30)
158
. Urban II  (1088-99)
171.
Urban III  (1185-7)
181. Urban IV  (1261-4)
199.
Urban V  (1362-70)
201.
Urban VI  (1378-89)
227.
Urban VII  (1590)
234.
Urban VIII  (1623-44)
anti-pope
 Ursinus  (366-7)

101.
Valentine  (827)
14.
St. Victor I  (189-98)
152. Victor II  (1055-7)
157.
Victor III  (1086-7)
anti-pope
 Victor IV  (1138)
anti-pope
  Victor V  (1159-64)
59.
Vigilius  (537-55)
76. St. Vitalian  (657-72)

91.
Zacharias  (741-52)
15.
Zephyrinus  (198-217)
41.
St. Zosimus  (417-18)

 

The Popes, in chronological order

AD 1400-1500

203.  Innocent VII. b. Cosimo Gentile de Migliorati at Sulmona. elected 11 Nov 1404; d. 6 Nov 1406, aged 70. He had been archbishop of Ravenna and Bologna and was a cardinal when chosen to succeed Boniface. Henceforth only cardinals were to be elected pope, a two-thirds majority being required at the conclaves. Innocent declined anti-pope Benedict's request for a meeting to discuss settling the schism, and  enlisted the help of Naples' King Ladislas to regain Rome. During his short reign when Romans revolted against his rule, his nephew  sought to help by having several of his opponents murdered. The resulting march on the Vatican forced Innocent and his cardinals to flee to Viterbo.
Bust, London's Victoria & Albert Museum.

204. Gregory XII. b. Angelo Corra at Venice, elected 19 Nov, 1406, d. 18 Oct, 1417, aged 79.  A cardinal priest and papal secretary he was "a learned and widely read octogenarian of exemplary austerity but vaccilating character" says ODP. Originally vowing to restore unity, he nevertheless was unable to get  anti-pope Benedict to a meeting. Frustrated cardinals from both factions met at Pisa in 1409 to depose both popes electing instead Pietro Philarghi, former archbishop of Milan, as  short-lived (anti-pope) Alexander V. He soon died--possibly poisoned--after declaring: "As bishop, I was rich. As cardinal, poor. As pope, a beggar".  
    Among those supporting Alexander's election, was Baldasare Cossa, a Neapolitan former pirate who after studying law at Bologna had been appointed archdeacon by Pope Boniface IX  and who in turn succeeded Alexander as (anti-pope) John XXIII. Although supported by some European countries, John defied  a general council  and fled before being brought back a prisoner. D&F charges with some irony that "the most scandalous charges were suppressed (he) was only accused of piracy, murder, rape, sodomy and incest". At the 1415 Council of Constance which  had accused Cossa of "all mortal sins and an endless list of offences", Pope Gregory agreed to resign, in return for appointment  to a high church office. When anti-pope Benedict XIII died in 1417, his subject cardinals elected (anti-pope) Clement VIII who later abdicated gracefully and was appointed bishop of Majorca.
Portrait by  Girolamo Muziano in Vatican Gallery. Portrait by Antonello da Messina in Palermo's Galleria Regionale della Sicilia. Tomb by Donatello in Florence.

POPES OF THE AVIGNON OBEDIENCE

Clement VII (1378-94)
Benedict XIII (1394-1417)
Clement VIII (1423-29)

POPES OF THE PISAN OBEDIENCE

Alexander V (1409-10)
John XXIII (1410-15)

205. Martin V.  b. Rome as Odo Colonna. elected 21 Nov, 1417, d. 20 Feb, 1431. aged 63. A cardinal when elected, he received broad support after his rivals had been deposed or abdicated, thus becoming the first pope after the Great Schism (temporarily) ended. During their reign, the French popes had created 134 cardinals, all but 22 of whom were French. Pope Martin, a member of the powerful Roman family whose members he rewarded with land grants,  re-established papal revenues by means of reforms and taxes,  rebuilt many Roman churches and made peace overtures to France and England as well as Constantinople. A hardliner, always in defence of the church's "sacred tradition", he had been involved in the burning at the stake of the the Bohemian reformer John Hus, for views "heretical by the standards of the late medieval church--S&S.  ("I die joyfully for the Gospel" Hus declared) . In a book of indecent tales, Facetiae, which became a bestseller in its day, author Gian Francisco Poggio Bracciolini, the pope's secretary, recounted some of the bawdy stories which he claimed that Martin had told him.
Monument by Simone Ghini in St John's Lateran. (From henceforth all popes were portrayed on medallions).

206. Eugene IV. b. Venice as Gabriel Condulmaro. elected 11 March, 1431; d. 23 Feb. 1447, aged 64. An Augustinian monk he had been made a cardinal by Pope Gregory XII to whom he was related. To regain the papal estates he battled with the Colonna family who responded by forcing him out of Rome. He lost another battle with a council of church reformers at Basel in 1431 which declared itself above papal authority. "Rejected...by his temporal and physical subjects," says D&F, "submission was his only choice; by a most humiliating bull the pope repealed his own acts and ratified those of the council". Later, the reformers elected the wealthy Duke of Savoy as (anti-pope) Felix V who was, however, unable to receive widespread acceptance. Eugene subsequently  returned to Rome. "Deeply pious but prone to blunders" summarizes ODP, he "was more at the mercy of events than their controller".
Fresco by F. Salvati in Palazzo Farnese;   tomb in  San Salvatore in Lauro;fresco by Pinturicchio in Siena Cathedral.

207. Nicholas V. b. La. Spezia as Tommaso Parentucelli. elected 19 March 1447, d. 24 March 1455,  aged 58. A protege of the bishop of Bologna whom he served and followed to Rome. Elected as a compromise candidate (he had been a cardinal for only a few months) he proved to be a conciliator although he was unable to respond effectively to  the 1453 sack of Constantinople by a Muslim army led by Sultan Mehmet II.  A classical scholar who founded  the Vatican library (S&S says "he declared that books and buildings were the only things worth spending money on"),  he had Europe combed for rare mss. that he could acquire. Beginning work on the new St Peter's (hiring such major artists as Fra. Angelico),  Nicholas advocated the creation of "astounding sights, great buildings and divine monuments" for Rome. "From a plebeian origin" says D&F, "he raised himself by his virtue and learning". Presiding over the Jubilee of 1450 which brought tens of thousands of pilgrims (and a huge influx of cash) to Rome, he canonized Siena's controversial Franciscan St Bernardino. Among the pope's advisers was Antoninus of Florence, the Dominican monk who founded San Marco monastery. On the abdication of the anti-pope Felix, Pope Nicholas appointed him a cardinal bishop.
Fresco by Fra. Angelico in the Vatican;depicted in painting in Nuremberg's National Museum.

208. Calistus III. b. Spain as Alfonso de Borgia. elected 20 Aug, 1455; d. 6 Aug. 1458, aged 83. His age, suggesting his pontificate would be brief, was instrumental in the choice of him as compromise candidate by those opposed to a Colonna family nominee. Callistus rejected as a waste of money his predecessor's ambitious building program in favor of promoting a crusade against the Turks ("the most cruel foes of the Christian name"), financing it with taxes on the clergy. But the venture had only limited success.  The pope rehabilitated and now declared innocent Joan of Arc, who had been burned at the stake for heresy and witchcraft 25 years earlier . Pope Callistus promoted Christianity in Scandinavia and , according to ISPR, ordered church bells rung every noon, while also reinstuting the laws banning social intercourse between Jews and Christians. He handed out lucrative church offices to many Spanish friends ("Catalans", sneered envous Romans) and elevated three of his nephews to high church office, one of them, Rodrigo Borgia, later to become pope.
Painting by Sano di Pietro in Accademia di Belle Arti, Siena; tomb in St Peter's crypt.

209. Pius II. b. Savona as Aeneas Silvio Piccolomini. elected 3 Sept, 1458, d.15 Aug. 1464 , aged 59. A farmboy whose education was in humanist studies in his youthful years, he admitted in a 1444 letter to a friend, "I have loved many women and after winning them have grown weary of them". In 1447 he had been appointed  bishop of Trieste, later of Siena.  Pope Callistus II made him a cardinal and  he became an assistant to (antipope) Felix . Thus, he was initially in opposition to Pope Eugene IV with whom he later reconciled. ("Reject Aeneas" he told the conclave that elected him, "and accept Pius").  Among the books he authored was a biography of one of his earlier employers,  Germany's King Frederick III who had crowned him poet laureate. His belief in ultimate papal authority was emphasized by his bull Execrabilis  which forbade "people, imbued with a spirit of rebellion (who) presume to appeal to a future Council" over  papal decisions.
    In 1460 he felt obliged to rebuke  Rodrigo Borgia (then a 29-year-old cardinal) over the latter's debauchery with a group of courtesans. "All Sienna is talking about this orgy", the pope wrote."We have heard that the most licentious dances were engaged in , none of the allurements of love were lacking and you conducted yourself in a wholly worldly manner. Shame forbids mention of all that took place...Our displeasure is beyond words...a cardinal should be above reproach". Pius' great dream was to unite Europe, even to convert the Turkish sultan to Christianity, but his repeated attempts to raise a crusade against  Islam met with frustration and he died at Ancona while planning such an expedition. Leading the crusade, if he had lived to do so, would have led  (says tP) to "a fiasco which would have severely damaged the prestige of the papacy". 
Fresco by Pinturiccio in Siena's Piccolomini library; bust in Borgia apartments, Vatican.

210. Paul II. b. Venice as  Pietro Barbo elected 16 Sept, 1464, d. 26 July, 1471, aged 54.  He was nephew of Pope Eugene IV who facilitated his elevation to  cardinal  by age 23.  Promising to accept some restraint of papal powers before his election, he reneged as pope and "the determination to make papal power dominant....is the most marked feature of his pontificate" (tP). Pope Paul introduced higher taxes for Jews, banned the study of pagan poets in Roman schools and suppressed the Roman academy which he suspected of being pagan-influenced. But (says ODP) "he surrounded himself with scholars, restored ancient monuments and eagerly collected artistic objects".  He restricted the wearing of the red beretta only to cardinals (ISPR) and reduced to 25 years the interval between Holy Years, which Clement VI had ordained to be every 50 years. Paul restored the Pantheon and the Arch of Titus and built  and occupied  the first large Renaissance palace in  Rome,  the Palazzo di Venezia, which became the Venetian embassy in which sits his bust by Bartolomeo Bellano  S&S says he was "intensely proud of his own good looks" and at first had considered calling himself Formosus II (formosus means beautiful").

211. Sixtus IV b. Savona,  elected 25 Aug, 1471; d. 12 Aug, 1484, aged 70. Formerly a poor Franciscan, he took his name Franceso della Rovere from the noble family he served as tutor. He reintroduced nepotism to the papacy by advancing family members including six nephews whom he appointed as cardinals. "Under him (nepotism) became the chief influence in papal policy" (tP). One of Sixtus' cardinals, "his lack-luster, whoring nephew Pietro Riario" (Uz) died leaving  the pope  enormous debts. Suspicions that the pope knew about the planned  murder of two of the de' Medici family led to his involvement in an unresolved war against Florence. Sixtus set up the Spanish Inquisition, whose grand inquisitor Torquemada he confirmed in the final year of his papacy.     
   "He transformed Rome from a medieval to a Renaissance city" (ODP), introduced public brothels to Rome (PRW) and taxed the prostitutes to raise money for building the Ponte Sisto (the first new bridge across the Tiber in centuries) whose foundation stone he laid while standing in a boat dropping gold coins into the water. Uzmaintains he "was certainly gay". Sixtus built a new Vatican Library, reformed the University of Rome  and originated both the Sistine Choir and the Sistine Chapel with its gorgeous  murals. Fresco by Melozzo da Forti in the Vatican; monument by Antonio Pollaiulo in Museo Petriano.; painting in Vatican Librtary

212. Innocent VIII. b. Genoa as Giovanni Battista Cibo. elected 12 Sept 1484; d. 25 July 1492, aged 60.  Chosen as "a manageable nonentity" (S&S)by Sixtus' nephew who stage-managed the election, he attempted to solve the curia's financial problems by selling various church offices and his own by marrying off his bastard children to wealthy Roman aristocrats, one of them, Franceshetto, to the daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici. He then made Lorenzo's 13-year-old-son, Giovanni, a cardinal (later to become Pope Leo X). Innocent supported the expedition of Columbus to the New World and opposed the slave trade. In a murky deal, he was paid to keep the younger son of Sultan Mehmet II imprisoned after the latter tried to overthrow the Turkish leader.
   Innocent granted supreme authority to the Dominican fathers, Heinrich Kramer and James Sprenger, authors of the witch-hunt manual Malleus Maleficarum  and issued a Bull supporting the  Inquisition's persecution of witchcraft in Germany . This was detached from the regular legal system and defined as a crimen exceptum  so that there could be no appeal against being burned alive.  Innocent "...left the papal states in anarchy, and his death was the signal for an outbreak of unprecedented violence and disorder" (ODP).
Monument by Antonio Pollaiulo in St Peter's.

213. Alexander VI. b.Spain as Rodrigo de Borgia. elected 26 Aug 1492, d. 18 Aug, 1503, aged 72. Buying votes with the proceeds of numerous properties of which he divested himself, Borgia, as a cardinal 30 years before, had been rebuked by Pope Pius II for debauchery. According to The Roman Pontiffs , a book published in France in 1845, Cardinal Medici told his brother Lorenzo after Alexander's election: "I fear we have committed ourselves to a rapacious wolf and he will no doubt devour us"   The new pontiff himself, who spent lavishly to secure his election, is said to have declared: "The pope is as far superior to a king as a man is to an animal". His lengthy liaision with Vanozza Catanei produced five children including Cesare and Lucretia. Buchard, the papal chamberlain, wrote that Cesare "like the emperor Commodus practised butchery in order to keep alive his taste for blood". Liutprand wrote that the Lateran Palace was filled with "loose young nobles of both sexes". The Dominican monk Savronola seeking to persuade France's king Charles VIII to invade Rome where the clergy were "steeped in shameful vices" declared the pope himself "guilty of simony, a heretic and an unbeliever". The pope excommunicated Savronola who was subsequently tortured and hanged.

   Alexander introduced the censorship of books, destroyed a Roman pyramid to build S. Maria in Traspontina and agreed to mediate rival claims by Spain and Portugal for the Americas in return for a pledge that the inhabitants be converted. "Sixty years after the publication of that bull" says ODP, "the bloody Spanish missionaries had massacred 15 millions of Indians in order to obey the pope". PRW concludes:"All the crimes we find singly in the lives of other popes are united in that of Alexander VI". Nevertheless, wrote the Florentine statesman Francesci Guicciardini, Alexander was not considered especially corrupt in an age when "the goodness of a pontiff (was) commended when it (did) not surpass the wickedness of other men".
Fresco by Pinturicchio in the Borgia apartments, Vatican.

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Index of References

OTHER BOOKS consulted or quoted from include:

The Golden Legend (GL);
Butler's Lives of the Saints  (B);
A Catholic Dictionary
(ACD);
The Popes' Rights & Wrongs
  (PRW);
History of the Popes
  (HP);
The Dictionary of Sects, Heresies
&c (DSH);
History of the Popes
  by Leonard Van Renke (LVR);
A Biographical Dictionary of the Saints  (BDS);
The Book of Popes
(BP);
A Source Book 
(SB) for Ancient Church History;
Saints & Their Emblems in English Churches
 (StE);
A Catholic Dictionary
-(CD);
The Popes, a concise biographical history
, (tP);
The Bad Popes
  (TBP);
The Penguin Dictionary of the Saints  (PDS);
New Catholic Encyclopedia (NCE);
The Decline & Fall of the Roman Empire  (D&F);
the Oxford Dictionary of Popes (ODP);
Somni Pontifici Romani
  (ISPR);
the Book of Saints  (BS);
Saints & Sinners (S&S).

For a complete list of references, click here.