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Popes & Anti-Popes AD 1600-1700

AD 0-100 AD 100-200 AD 200-300 AD 300-400 AD 400-500 AD 500-600 AD 600-700 AD 700-800 AD 800-900 AD 900-1000 AD 1000-1100 AD 1100-1200 AD 1200-1300 AD 1300-1400 AD 1400-1500 AD 1500-1600 AD 1600-1700 AD 1700-1800 AD 1800-1900 AD 1900-2000

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Alphabetical list of Popes

96    Adrian I  (772-75)
107  Adrian II (867-872)
110  S. Adrian III (884-885)
168  Adrian IV  (1154-9)
185
  Adrian V  (1276)
217
 Adrian VI  (1522-3)
57
    S. Agapitus  (535-6)
130
  Agapitus II (946-955)
79
    S. Agatho  (678-81)
6    S. Alexander (105-115)
155  Alexander II (1061-73)
169
 Alexander III (1159-81)
180
 Alexander IV  (1254-61)
anti-pope  Alexander V
213
  Alexander VI (1492-1503)
236
 Alexander VII (1655-67)
240
 Alexander VIII (1689-91)
3.
    S. Anacletus  (76-93)
39.
  S. Anastasius  (399-401)
50.
 Anastasius  II (496-98)
121
.  Anastasius III  (911-13)
167.
  Anastasius IV  (1153-4)
11.
 S. Anicetus  (155-166)
19.  S. Anterus  (236)

62
  Benedict I  (575-9)
81.
  S. Benedict II (684-5)
105
.  Benedict III  (655-8)
118.
  Benedict IV  (900-903)
133.
  Benedict V  (964-6)
135.
  Benedict VI  (973-4)
136
.  Benedict VII  (974-83)
144.  Benedict VIII  (1012-24)
146.
  Benedict IX  (1042)
anti-pope  Benedict X  (1058)
193.
  Benedict XI (1303-4)
196.
  Benedict XII (1335-42)
244.
  Benedict XIII (1724-30)
246.
  Benedict XIV (1740-58)
247.
  Benedict XV  (1914-22)
42.
  S. Boniface  I  (418-22)
55.  Boniface II (530-2)
66
.  Boniface III (607)
67.  S. Boniface IV  (608-15)
69.
  Boniface V  (619-25)
113.  Boniface VI  (896)
anti-pope
 Boniface  VII (974)
192.  Boniface VIII (1294-1303)
202.  Boniface IX (1389-1404)

28.
 S. Caius  ( 283-96)
16.
 S. Callistus  ( 217-22)
161.
 Callistus  II  ( 1119-24)
208.
 Calistus III  ( 1455-58)
43.
  S. Celestine I ( 422-32)
164.  Celestine II  ( 1143-4)
174.
  Celestine III  ( 1191-8)
178.  Celestine IV  ( 1241)
191.
  Celestine V  ( 1294)
4.
   S. Clement I  ( c.91-101)
149.
 Clement II  (1046-7)
173.  Clement III  ( 1187-91)
182.
  Clement IV  (1265-8)
194.  Clement V  ( 1305-14)
197.
 Clement VI  ( 1342-52)
218.
 Clement VII  ( 1523-34)
230.
 Clement VIII  ( 1592-1605)
237.
 Clement IX  ( 1667-9)
238.
 Clement X  ( 1670-6)
242.  Clement  XI  ( 1700-21)
245.
 Clement XII  ( 1730-40)
247.  Clement XIII  ( 1758-69)
248.
  Clement XIV  ( 1769-74)
83.   Conon  ( 686-7)
21.
  S. Cornelius  ( 251-3)
88.
   Constantine I  ( 708-15)

37.
 S. Damasus I  ( 366-84)
150.  Damasus  II  ( 1048)
68.
St. Deusdedit (615-18)
25.   Dionysios  ( 260-8)
78.   Donus  (676-8)

13.
 S. Eleutherus  (175-89)
75.
 S. Eugenius I  ( 654-7)
100.
 Eugenius  II  ( 824-7)
166.
  Eugenius III  (1145-53)
206.
  Eugenius  IV (1431-47)
31.
  Eusebius  ( 310)
27.
  S. Eutychian  (275-83)
5.
  Evaristus  (101-9)

20.
 Fabian  (236-50)
26. 
Felix I  (269-74)
anti-pope  Felix II (355-65)
48.
 S. Felix  III (483-492)
54.
 S. Felix  IV  (526-30)
anti-pope 
Felix V (1439-49)
112
.  Formosus  (891-96)

49.
St Gelasius (492-6)
160.
Gelasius II (1118-9) 
64. Gregory I (590-604)
89.
Gregory II  (715-31)
90.
Gregory III (731-41)
102.
Gregory IV (827-44)
139.
Gregory V (996-9)
anti-pope  Gregory VI  (1012)
148.
Gregory VI (1045-6)
156.
Gregory VII (1073-85)
anti-pope
  Gregory VIII (1187)
172.
Gregory VIII (1187)
177. Gregory IX  (1227-41)
183. Gregory X  (1271-6)
200.
Gregory XI (1370-8)
204.
Gregory XII (1405-15)
225.
Gregory XIII  (1527-85)
228.
Gregory XIV  (1590-1)
233.
Gregory XV  (1621-3)
253.
Gregory XVI  (1831-46)

46.
Hilarus  (461-8)
anti-pope 
Hippolytus  (217-35)
70.
Honorius I  (625-38)
anti-pope
  Honorius II (1061-4)
162. Honorius II  (1124-30)
176. Honorius III  (1216-27)
189.
Honorius IV  (1285-7)
52. Hormisdas  (514-23)
9. St.Hyginus  (c. 138-42)

40.
Innocent I  (401-17)
163.
Innocent II  (1130-41)
anti-pope  Innocent III (1179-80)
175.
Innocent III  (1198-1216)
179.
Innocent IV  (1243-54)
184.
Innocent V  (1276)
198.
Innocent VI (1352-62)
203.
Innocent VII (1404-6)
212.
Innocent VIII  (1484-92)
229.
Innocent IX  (1591)
235.
Innocent X  (1644-55)
239.
Innocent XI  (1676-89)
241. Innocent XII  (1691-1700)
243.
Innocent XIII  (1721-4)

53.
John I  (523-6)
56. John II  (533-5)
61. John III  (561-74)
72.
John IV  (640-2)
82.
John V  (685-6)
85.
John VI  (701-5)
86.
John VII  (705-7
anti-pope
 John  (844)
108
. John VIII  (872-82)
117. John IX  (898-900)
123.
John X  (914-28)
126.
John XI  (931-6)
131.
John XII  (955-64)
134.
John XIII (965-72)
137,
John XIV  (983-4)
138.
John XV  (985-96)
anti-pope  John XVI  (997-8)
141. John XVII  (1003)
142.
John XVIII  (1003-9)
145. John XIX  (1024-32)
186.
John XXI  (1276-7)
195.
John XXII  (1316-34)
anti-pope
  John XXIII  (1410-15)
260.
John XXIII   (1958-63)
262.
John Paul I  (1978)
263.
John Paul II (1978-2005)
35.
Julius I  (337-52)
215.
Julius II  (1503-13)
220.
Julius III (1550-5)

122.
Lando  (913-14)
anti-pope
  Laurentius (498-9; 501-6)
45.
Leo I (440-61)
80. Leo II  (682-3)
97.
St Leo III (795-816)
104.
St Leo IV  (847-55)
119. Leo V  (903)
124. Leo VI (928)
127.
Leo VII  (936-9)
132.
Leo VIII (963-5)
151. Leo IX  (1049-54)
216. Leo X  (1513-21)
231.
Leo XI  (1605)
250.
Leo XII  (1823-9)
255.
Leo XIII (1878-1903)
36.
Liberius  (352-66)
2.
 Linus  (c. 66-78)
22. St. Lucius I  (253-4)
165.
Lucius II  (1144-5)
170.
Lucius III  (1181-5)

29.
Marcellinus  (c.296-304)
30. Marcellus I  (306-8)
221. Marcellus II  (1555)
109.
Marinus I (Martin II) (882-4)
129.
Marinus II  (Martin III) (942-6)
34. St Mark  (336)
74.
Martin I  (649-53)
188.
Martin IV  (1281-5)
205. Martin V  (1417-31)
32.
Miltiades  (311-14)

106.
St Nicholas  (858-67)
154.
Nicholas II  (1056-61)
187.
Nicholas III  (1277-80)
190.
Nicholas IV  (1288-92)
anti-pope  Nicholas V  (1328-30)
207.
Nicholas V  (1447-55)
anti-pope
Novatian  (251-8)

anti-pope 
Paschal  (687)
99. Paschal I  (817-24)
159.
Paschal II  (1099-1118)
anti-pope
  Paschal III  (1164-8)
94.
St Paul  (757-67)
210.
Paul II  (1464-71)
219.
Paul III  (1534-49)
222. Paul IV  (1555-9)
232.
Paul V  (1605-21)
261. Paul VI  (1963-78)
60.
Pelagius  (556-61)
63.
Pelagius II  (579-90)
1.  St. Peter (died c. 64)
anti-pope  Philip  (768)
10.
St Pius I  (c. 142-55)
209.
 Pius II  (1458-64)
214.
 Pius III  (1503)
223.
Pius IV  (1559-65)
224.
St Pius V  (1566-72)
249.
Pius VI  (1775-99)
250.
Pius VII  (1800-23)
252.
Pius VIII  (1829-30)
254.
Pius IX  (1846-78)
256.
St Pius X  (1903-14)
258.
Pius XI  (1922-39)
259.
Pius XII  (1939-58)
18.
St Pontian  (230-5)

115.
Romanus  (897)

65.
Sabinian  (604-6)
84. Sergius I  (687-701)
103.
Sergius II  (844-7)
120. Sergius III  (904-11)
143.
Sergius IV  (1009-12)
71. Severinus  (640)
58.
Silverius  (536-7)
33. Sylvester i  (314-35)
140. Sylvester II  (999-1003)
147.
Sylvester III (1045)
anti-pope
  Sylvester IV (1105-11)
47.
St Simplicius  (468-83)
38.
Siricius  (384-99)
87.
Sisinnius  (708)
7.
Sixtus I  (c.116-125)
24.
Sixtus II  (257-8)
44.
St Sixtus  III  (432-40)
211.
Sixtus IV  (1471-84)
226.
Sixtus V (1585-90)
12.
St  Soter  (c. 166-74)
23.
Stephen I  (254-7)
92. Stephen II  (752-7)
95.
Stephen III (768-72)
98.
Stephen IV  (816-17)
111. Stephen V  (885-91)
114.
Stephen VI  (896-7)
125.
Stephen VII  (928-31)
128.
Stephen VIII  (939-42)
153.
Stephen IX  (1057-8)
51.
St. Symmachus  (498-514)

8.
Telesphorus  (125-136)
73. Theodore I  (642-9)
anti-pope
  Theodore  (687)
116.
Theodore II  (897)
anti-pope  Theodoric  (1100-1)

17.
St. Urban I (222-30)
158
. Urban II  (1088-99)
171.
Urban III  (1185-7)
181. Urban IV  (1261-4)
199.
Urban V  (1362-70)
201.
Urban VI  (1378-89)
227.
Urban VII  (1590)
234.
Urban VIII  (1623-44)
anti-pope
 Ursinus  (366-7)

101.
Valentine  (827)
14.
St. Victor I  (189-98)
152. Victor II  (1055-7)
157.
Victor III  (1086-7)
anti-pope
 Victor IV  (1138)
anti-pope
  Victor V  (1159-64)
59.
Vigilius  (537-55)
76. St. Vitalian  (657-72)

91.
Zacharias  (741-52)
15.
Zephyrinus  (198-217)
41.
St. Zosimus  (417-18)

 

The Popes, in chronological order

AD 1600-1700

231. Leo XI. b. Florence as Alessandro Ottaviano de Medici. elected 10 April 1605; d. 27 April 1605, aged 69. A nephew of Pope Leo X he was appointed archbishop of Florence  by Pope Gregory XIII and later cardinal. While papal legate to France he assisted in the conversion of King Henry IV, who was rumored to have contributed large sums to have him elected. Leo, an ascetic,  helped to make peace between France and Spain, but died within a few weeks of election.
Monument by Alessandro Algardi in St Peter's.

232. Paul V. b. Rome as Camillo Borghese. elected 29 May 1605, d. 28 Jan, 1621, aged 70.  His outdated views about papal supremacy created conflict with Venice which he at first placed under an interdict which he soon found wiser to lift.  ("Rulers everywhere were alarmed at this direct confrontation with a sovereign state"--S&S). After the aborted 1605 Gunpowder Plot to blow up the English Parliament had unearthed Catholic conspirators, Pope Paul pleaded with James I for tolerance towards Catholics. He beatified such admired Catholics as Ignatius Loyola, Francis Xavier, Philip Neri and Teresa of Avila for their  holy works of the previous century, and  emphasized his support for missionaries. Nevertheless, he censured Galileo for his adherence to the doctrines of Copernicus, especially the assertion that the planets revolved around the sun.
   An unattributed ms. in the Barberini Library calls Paul, "for the most part silent and abstracted, in all times and places; even at table he meditated, wrote and transacted many affairs" (LVR). A shrewd financier, Paul  founded the Banco di Santo Spirito  He brought water to the city and erected palace and fountains including the Acqua Paola. The completed facade of St Peter's was decorated with "an immense and vulgar inscription, says S&S, "which seemed to claim the church for Paul V rather than for the Apostle Peter". Bust by Bernini in the Palazzo Borghese

233. Gregory XV. b. Bologna as Alessandro Ludovici elected 14 Feb. 1621; d. 8 July 1623, aged 78. A Jesuit, he had become a cardinal after successfully mediating the dispute between Spain's Philip II and Charles Emmanuel of Savoy. With the support of Cardinal Borghese--Pope Paul's nephew--he was a popular choice for the pontificate which he then used to promote European unity, especially between Spain and France. He streamlined the papal election system, introducing a secret ballot. To coordinate the church's far-flung missionary activities he founded the Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith and canonized the four church luminaries that his predecessor had beatified: Philp Neri, Francis Xavier, Ignatius Loyola and Teresa of Avila. He worked hard to support the missionaries and strengthened Catholicism in both France and Ireland.
Monument by Pierre Le Gros in S. Ignazio

234. Urban VIII. b. Florence as Maffeo Barberini. elected 29 Sept 1623, d. 29 July 1644, aged 75. Educated by the Jesuits, he was made a cardinal by Pope Paul V for his diplomatic skills in France, as the pope struggled to maintain his neutrality in that country's continuing dispute with Spain. In the course of strengthening Rome's defences,  the wealthy Barberrini pope stripped the   bronze girders and the roof from the Pantheon  to make cannons for Castel Sant'Angelo and Gian Lorenzo Bernini's baldachino in St Peter's, giving rise to the accusation that, "The Barberini have done what the barbarians never managed"  which is still glibly quoted to this day. Urban made his brother and two nephews cardinals. In his Bull, InCoena Domini  he damned heretics, among whom was Galileo who was  jailed and threatened with torture for his adherence to Copernicus'  heliocentric doctrine that the earth and planets revolved around a stationary sun. He charged the 70-year-old astronomer with causing a "grievous injury" by (daring)" to meddle with matters beyond his competence", denouncing him to the Inquisition which forbade Galileo to write, teach or leave home.    
    Urban commissioned the fountain beside Rome's Spanish Steps and the Triton fountain. Nominated the term Eminentia  by which cardinals must be addressed. A marble statue of Urban in the Campidoglio museum by Bernini was regarded by Romans of his time as extravagantly egotistic. "He thinks very highly of his own opinion and therefore does not love taking counsel..." wrote the Venetian ambassador Zuanne Nani (LVR). Urban's extravagances included an unsuccessful war over a neighboring fiefdom so that at his death he left the church heavily in debt even though, according to PRW,  he managed to bequeath his family 20 million scudi. He had made his brother and two nephews cardinals. His biographer Andrea Nicoletti, however, said that at his death he summoned "eminent theologians"  (LVR) and "commanded them to declare whether he had in any wise exceeded his power and authority" saying that he was prepared to give back "whatever might burden his conscience before the tribunal of God".
Portrait by Andrea Sacchi in Barberini Gallery.

235. Innocent X. b. Rome as Giovanni Battista Pamphilj. Elected 4 Oct, 1644. d. 7 Jan, 1655, aged 80.  The conclave took more than a month to agree on his election because of his predecesssor's perceived favoritism towards France.  Innocent favored Spain in the continuing war between the two countries. LVR quotes the Venetian ambassador Aluise Conteri's evaluation of Innocent as "difficult and punctilious...He is considered by all to be slow of apprehension, and to have but  a small capacity for important combinations; he is nevertheless very obstinate in his ideas..." Innocent set up a commission which condemned Cornelius Jansen's Augustine   ("the extremist presentation of St Augustine's teaching on  grace and freewill"--ODP) which caused a rift in the cburch and was to divide it  for years to come. Although highly critical of his predecessor's nepotism, the pope became a pawn to the ambition of his domineering sister in law Olympia, who secularised monasteries and appropriated their land; she was the subject of continuing scorn by the Pasquino 'talking' statue.  Innocent restored and added fountains to the  Piazza Navona and built the Villa Dora Pamphilji.  
Bronze statue in Campidoglio museum;  depicted as the devil in Guido Reni's painting in S. Maria della Concezione ; portrait  by Velasquez  in the Galleria Dora Pamphilj.

236  Alexander VII. b. Siena as Fabio Chigi. elected 18 April 1655; d. 22 May 1667, aged 67. His powerful enemy the French cardinal Jules Mazarin opposed his election as he had opposed that of his predecessor. Thus Alexander's relations were stormy with France and its king, Louis XIV who, in 1664, marched into Avignon, forcing Alexander into a meeting at Pisa and making concessions. The pope welcomed the former Swedish queen Christina into the Catholic church, and into Roman society. He reaffirmed Pope Innocent's condemnation of Jansenism,  which had strong backing among the French clergy but whose strong affirmation of predestination was regarded by the Chuch as too close to Calvinism's theocratic view of the state. Eschewing nepotism, after the excesses of  his predecessor, the new pope declared: "As Fabio Chigi I had a family. As Alexander VII I have none". A generous patron of the arts,  he commissioned Bernini to instal the magnificent colonnades flanking St Peter's Square and also to restore S. Maria del Popolo in which is Raphael's Chigi Chapel. 
Monument by Bernini  in St Peter's.

237 Clement IX. b. Pistoia as Giulio Rospigliosi; elected 26 June, 1667; d. 9 Dec, 1669, aged 69. As Alexander's secretary of state he repaired relations with France, and as pope he was involved in negotiating an end to that country's longstanding dispute with Spain. What became known as The Clementine Peace also cooled down the rift over how to interpret the beliefs expressed by Cornelius Jansen in his Augustinus  which had been published to papal disapproval earlier in the century. Venetian ambassador Antonio Grimani admired the uncharacteristic demeanor of the papal relatives writing (LVR) that "there had never been (a pope) more prudent or moderate in his deportment towards his nephews and...never have kinsmen of the pope been seen in Rome more modest, more humble, more charitable". Clement backed an international naval force which unsuccessfully tried to regain Crete from Turkish rule.  He commissioned Bernini  to sculpt ten angels for the Castel Sant'Angelo bridge.
Portrait by Carlo Maratta in the Vatican and by Nicolas Poussin in the Galeria Corsini.

238 Clement X. b. Rome as Emilio Altieri. elected 11 May 1669; d. 22 July 1676, aged 85. Mainly owing  to disagreements between Spanish and French cardinals, the conclave argued for almost five months--invoking a privilege called jus exclusive (which gave their respective kings a veto) before electing Clement, who had been appointed a cardinal by Clement IX. As pope, Clement X delegated too much responsibility to a distant nephew who "exploited the pope's kindness to accumulate offices and riches for himself and his family" (ODP). After this pontificate, the term "cardinal nephew"--not always a relative--disappears from the record and the role was filled thenceforth by the secretary of state. Clement pushed through his nomination of John Sobiesky for King of Poland after the latter's defeat of the Turks.
Bust in London's Victoria & Albert Museum

239. Innocent XI. b. Como as Benedetto Odescalchi; elected 4 Oct, 1676; d. 12 Aug, 1689, aged 78. A reluctant nominee--he had earlier resigned as bishop of Novara due to ill-health--he obliged the conclave to accept his plans for reform, including  the abolishment of a reform that  most cardinals fiercely opposed. By careful fiscal management he drastically reduced the crippling papal debt. Innocent's dispute with  France's Louis XIV over spheres of influence, was met with the adoption  by the French clergy of the Gallican Articles which attempted to limit the pope's authority. Innocent responded by snubbing the new French ambassador and favoring the emperor's choice for archbishop of Cologne over Louis' nominee. The king promptly annexed the papal territories of Venaissin and Avignon.
   With the aid and cooperation of Poland, Russia and Venice, the papal-instigated Holy League pushed the Turks out of Hungary and Belgrade. In 1686 the pope was suspected of keeping the number of cardinals  to a low of 43 in the hope of shortening the next conclave. Opposing Louis XIV's oppression of the Huguenots, he also tried to soften James II's persecution of English Catholics. "Historians of all schools recognize him as the outstanding 17th century pope" says ODP,but although the process of beatification began 25 years after Innocent's death, it remained unratified until 1956.
Monument by Etienne Monot in St. Peter's.

240. Alexander VIII. b. Venice as Pietro Ottoboni; elected 16 Oct, 1689; d. 1 Feb, 1691, aged 80. Although a close ally of his predecessor, who had appointed him secretary of the Holy Office, Alexander was more conciliatory to King Louis  XIV who approved his election and handed back the occupied papal territories of Avignon and Vernaissin. In contrast to his severe predeccessor, says ODP, he "delighted the Romans by his lavish style but recklessly revived the nepotism Innocent had disdained" by  appointing two nephews to high office. He also reduced taxes and, despite opposition  recruited troops to help Poland and Venice in their fight against the Turks.
Bust in London's Victoria & Albert Museum.

241. Innocent XII. b. Naples  as Antonio Pignatelli; elected 15 July, 1691; d. 27 Sept, 1700, aged 85. Disputes between different factions delayed the conclave for five months until his selection as a compromise candidate. As a formerly efficient archbishop of Naples, Innocent brought his methods to Rome, cutting expenditures promoting mercantile trade, expanding charity among the poor and--against the opposition of many cardinals--banning such nepotistic practises as granting offices or estates to relatives. In 1692 the pope issued the bull Romanum decet pontificem  which ended sinecures and limited the stipend a nephew might draw. He also instituted the custom of priests wearing cassocks every day. A partial rapprochement with France's Louis XIV was counter-balanced by worsening relations with Emperor Leopold I and Innocent's support for Louis' grandson Philip to follow Charles II as king of Spain was to produce problems for his successor.  Portrait by Lodovico Antonio David in the Villa Albani.

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Index of References

OTHER BOOKS consulted or quoted from include:

The Golden Legend (GL);
Butler's Lives of the Saints  (B);
A Catholic Dictionary
(ACD);
The Popes' Rights & Wrongs
  (PRW);
History of the Popes
  (HP);
The Dictionary of Sects, Heresies
&c (DSH);
History of the Popes
  by Leonard Van Renke (LVR);
A Biographical Dictionary of the Saints  (BDS);
The Book of Popes
(BP);
A Source Book 
(SB) for Ancient Church History;
Saints & Their Emblems in English Churches
 (StE);
A Catholic Dictionary
-(CD);
The Popes, a concise biographical history
, (tP);
The Bad Popes
  (TBP);
The Penguin Dictionary of the Saints  (PDS);
New Catholic Encyclopedia (NCE);
The Decline & Fall of the Roman Empire  (D&F);
the Oxford Dictionary of Popes (ODP);
Somni Pontifici Romani
  (ISPR);
the Book of Saints  (BS);
Saints & Sinners (S&S).

For a complete list of references, click here.