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Popes & Anti-Popes AD 1900-2000

AD 0-100 AD 100-200 AD 200-300 AD 300-400 AD 400-500 AD 500-600 AD 600-700 AD 700-800 AD 800-900 AD 900-1000 AD 1000-1100 AD 1100-1200 AD 1200-1300 AD 1300-1400 AD 1400-1500 AD 1500-1600 AD 1600-1700 AD 1700-1800 AD 1800-1900 AD 1900-2000

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Alphabetical list of Popes

96    Adrian I  (772-75)
107  Adrian II (867-872)
110  S. Adrian III (884-885)
168  Adrian IV  (1154-9)
185
  Adrian V  (1276)
217
 Adrian VI  (1522-3)
57
    S. Agapitus  (535-6)
130
  Agapitus II (946-955)
79
    S. Agatho  (678-81)
6    S. Alexander (105-115)
155  Alexander II (1061-73)
169
 Alexander III (1159-81)
180
 Alexander IV  (1254-61)
anti-pope  Alexander V
213
  Alexander VI (1492-1503)
236
 Alexander VII (1655-67)
240
 Alexander VIII (1689-91)
3.
    S. Anacletus  (76-93)
39.
  S. Anastasius  (399-401)
50.
 Anastasius  II (496-98)
121
.  Anastasius III  (911-13)
167.
  Anastasius IV  (1153-4)
11.
 S. Anicetus  (155-166)
19.  S. Anterus  (236)

62
  Benedict I  (575-9)
81.
  S. Benedict II (684-5)
105
.  Benedict III  (655-8)
118.
  Benedict IV  (900-903)
133.
  Benedict V  (964-6)
135.
  Benedict VI  (973-4)
136
.  Benedict VII  (974-83)
144.  Benedict VIII  (1012-24)
146.
  Benedict IX  (1042)
anti-pope  Benedict X  (1058)
193.
  Benedict XI (1303-4)
196.
  Benedict XII (1335-42)
244.
  Benedict XIII (1724-30)
246.
  Benedict XIV (1740-58)
247.
  Benedict XV  (1914-22)
42.
  S. Boniface  I  (418-22)
55.  Boniface II (530-2)
66
.  Boniface III (607)
67.  S. Boniface IV  (608-15)
69.
  Boniface V  (619-25)
113.  Boniface VI  (896)
anti-pope
 Boniface  VII (974)
192.  Boniface VIII (1294-1303)
202.  Boniface IX (1389-1404)

28.
 S. Caius  ( 283-96)
16.
 S. Callistus  ( 217-22)
161.
 Callistus  II  ( 1119-24)
208.
 Calistus III  ( 1455-58)
43.
  S. Celestine I ( 422-32)
164.  Celestine II  ( 1143-4)
174.
  Celestine III  ( 1191-8)
178.  Celestine IV  ( 1241)
191.
  Celestine V  ( 1294)
4.
   S. Clement I  ( c.91-101)
149.
 Clement II  (1046-7)
173.  Clement III  ( 1187-91)
182.
  Clement IV  (1265-8)
194.  Clement V  ( 1305-14)
197.
 Clement VI  ( 1342-52)
218.
 Clement VII  ( 1523-34)
230.
 Clement VIII  ( 1592-1605)
237.
 Clement IX  ( 1667-9)
238.
 Clement X  ( 1670-6)
242.  Clement  XI  ( 1700-21)
245.
 Clement XII  ( 1730-40)
247.  Clement XIII  ( 1758-69)
248.
  Clement XIV  ( 1769-74)
83.   Conon  ( 686-7)
21.
  S. Cornelius  ( 251-3)
88.
   Constantine I  ( 708-15)

37.
 S. Damasus I  ( 366-84)
150.  Damasus  II  ( 1048)
68.
St. Deusdedit (615-18)
25.   Dionysios  ( 260-8)
78.   Donus  (676-8)

13.
 S. Eleutherus  (175-89)
75.
 S. Eugenius I  ( 654-7)
100.
 Eugenius  II  ( 824-7)
166.
  Eugenius III  (1145-53)
206.
  Eugenius  IV (1431-47)
31.
  Eusebius  ( 310)
27.
  S. Eutychian  (275-83)
5.
  Evaristus  (101-9)

20.
 Fabian  (236-50)
26. 
Felix I  (269-74)
anti-pope  Felix II (355-65)
48.
 S. Felix  III (483-492)
54.
 S. Felix  IV  (526-30)
anti-pope 
Felix V (1439-49)
112
.  Formosus  (891-96)

49.
St Gelasius (492-6)
160.
Gelasius II (1118-9) 
64. Gregory I (590-604)
89.
Gregory II  (715-31)
90.
Gregory III (731-41)
102.
Gregory IV (827-44)
139.
Gregory V (996-9)
anti-pope  Gregory VI  (1012)
148.
Gregory VI (1045-6)
156.
Gregory VII (1073-85)
anti-pope
  Gregory VIII (1187)
172.
Gregory VIII (1187)
177. Gregory IX  (1227-41)
183. Gregory X  (1271-6)
200.
Gregory XI (1370-8)
204.
Gregory XII (1405-15)
225.
Gregory XIII  (1527-85)
228.
Gregory XIV  (1590-1)
233.
Gregory XV  (1621-3)
253.
Gregory XVI  (1831-46)

46.
Hilarus  (461-8)
anti-pope 
Hippolytus  (217-35)
70.
Honorius I  (625-38)
anti-pope
  Honorius II (1061-4)
162. Honorius II  (1124-30)
176. Honorius III  (1216-27)
189.
Honorius IV  (1285-7)
52. Hormisdas  (514-23)
9. St.Hyginus  (c. 138-42)

40.
Innocent I  (401-17)
163.
Innocent II  (1130-41)
anti-pope  Innocent III (1179-80)
175.
Innocent III  (1198-1216)
179.
Innocent IV  (1243-54)
184.
Innocent V  (1276)
198.
Innocent VI (1352-62)
203.
Innocent VII (1404-6)
212.
Innocent VIII  (1484-92)
229.
Innocent IX  (1591)
235.
Innocent X  (1644-55)
239.
Innocent XI  (1676-89)
241. Innocent XII  (1691-1700)
243.
Innocent XIII  (1721-4)

53.
John I  (523-6)
56. John II  (533-5)
61. John III  (561-74)
72.
John IV  (640-2)
82.
John V  (685-6)
85.
John VI  (701-5)
86.
John VII  (705-7
anti-pope
 John  (844)
108
. John VIII  (872-82)
117. John IX  (898-900)
123.
John X  (914-28)
126.
John XI  (931-6)
131.
John XII  (955-64)
134.
John XIII (965-72)
137,
John XIV  (983-4)
138.
John XV  (985-96)
anti-pope  John XVI  (997-8)
141. John XVII  (1003)
142.
John XVIII  (1003-9)
145. John XIX  (1024-32)
186.
John XXI  (1276-7)
195.
John XXII  (1316-34)
anti-pope
  John XXIII  (1410-15)
260.
John XXIII   (1958-63)
262.
John Paul I  (1978)
263.
John Paul II (1978-2005)
35.
Julius I  (337-52)
215.
Julius II  (1503-13)
220.
Julius III (1550-5)

122.
Lando  (913-14)
anti-pope
  Laurentius (498-9; 501-6)
45.
Leo I (440-61)
80. Leo II  (682-3)
97.
St Leo III (795-816)
104.
St Leo IV  (847-55)
119. Leo V  (903)
124. Leo VI (928)
127.
Leo VII  (936-9)
132.
Leo VIII (963-5)
151. Leo IX  (1049-54)
216. Leo X  (1513-21)
231.
Leo XI  (1605)
250.
Leo XII  (1823-9)
255.
Leo XIII (1878-1903)
36.
Liberius  (352-66)
2.
 Linus  (c. 66-78)
22. St. Lucius I  (253-4)
165.
Lucius II  (1144-5)
170.
Lucius III  (1181-5)

29.
Marcellinus  (c.296-304)
30. Marcellus I  (306-8)
221. Marcellus II  (1555)
109.
Marinus I (Martin II) (882-4)
129.
Marinus II  (Martin III) (942-6)
34. St Mark  (336)
74.
Martin I  (649-53)
188.
Martin IV  (1281-5)
205. Martin V  (1417-31)
32.
Miltiades  (311-14)

106.
St Nicholas  (858-67)
154.
Nicholas II  (1056-61)
187.
Nicholas III  (1277-80)
190.
Nicholas IV  (1288-92)
anti-pope  Nicholas V  (1328-30)
207.
Nicholas V  (1447-55)
anti-pope
Novatian  (251-8)

anti-pope 
Paschal  (687)
99. Paschal I  (817-24)
159.
Paschal II  (1099-1118)
anti-pope
  Paschal III  (1164-8)
94.
St Paul  (757-67)
210.
Paul II  (1464-71)
219.
Paul III  (1534-49)
222. Paul IV  (1555-9)
232.
Paul V  (1605-21)
261. Paul VI  (1963-78)
60.
Pelagius  (556-61)
63.
Pelagius II  (579-90)
1.  St. Peter (died c. 64)
anti-pope  Philip  (768)
10.
St Pius I  (c. 142-55)
209.
 Pius II  (1458-64)
214.
 Pius III  (1503)
223.
Pius IV  (1559-65)
224.
St Pius V  (1566-72)
249.
Pius VI  (1775-99)
250.
Pius VII  (1800-23)
252.
Pius VIII  (1829-30)
254.
Pius IX  (1846-78)
256.
St Pius X  (1903-14)
258.
Pius XI  (1922-39)
259.
Pius XII  (1939-58)
18.
St Pontian  (230-5)

115.
Romanus  (897)

65.
Sabinian  (604-6)
84. Sergius I  (687-701)
103.
Sergius II  (844-7)
120. Sergius III  (904-11)
143.
Sergius IV  (1009-12)
71. Severinus  (640)
58.
Silverius  (536-7)
33. Sylvester i  (314-35)
140. Sylvester II  (999-1003)
147.
Sylvester III (1045)
anti-pope
  Sylvester IV (1105-11)
47.
St Simplicius  (468-83)
38.
Siricius  (384-99)
87.
Sisinnius  (708)
7.
Sixtus I  (c.116-125)
24.
Sixtus II  (257-8)
44.
St Sixtus  III  (432-40)
211.
Sixtus IV  (1471-84)
226.
Sixtus V (1585-90)
12.
St  Soter  (c. 166-74)
23.
Stephen I  (254-7)
92. Stephen II  (752-7)
95.
Stephen III (768-72)
98.
Stephen IV  (816-17)
111. Stephen V  (885-91)
114.
Stephen VI  (896-7)
125.
Stephen VII  (928-31)
128.
Stephen VIII  (939-42)
153.
Stephen IX  (1057-8)
51.
St. Symmachus  (498-514)

8.
Telesphorus  (125-136)
73. Theodore I  (642-9)
anti-pope
  Theodore  (687)
116.
Theodore II  (897)
anti-pope  Theodoric  (1100-1)

17.
St. Urban I (222-30)
158
. Urban II  (1088-99)
171.
Urban III  (1185-7)
181. Urban IV  (1261-4)
199.
Urban V  (1362-70)
201.
Urban VI  (1378-89)
227.
Urban VII  (1590)
234.
Urban VIII  (1623-44)
anti-pope
 Ursinus  (366-7)

101.
Valentine  (827)
14.
St. Victor I  (189-98)
152. Victor II  (1055-7)
157.
Victor III  (1086-7)
anti-pope
 Victor IV  (1138)
anti-pope
  Victor V  (1159-64)
59.
Vigilius  (537-55)
76. St. Vitalian  (657-72)

91.
Zacharias  (741-52)
15.
Zephyrinus  (198-217)
41.
St. Zosimus  (417-18)

 

The Popes, in chronological order

AD 1900-2000

256.  St Pius X. b. Riese as Giuseppi Melchiorre Sarto;  elected  9 Aug, 1903; d.20 Aug, 1914, aged 79.  The son of a village postman who was born near Venice.  After 17 years as a country priest there, Leo XIII appointed him patriarch and a cardinal in 1893.  A decade later he became the first peasant to be elected pope since the Middle Ages, his pontificate "distinguished by a personal approachability and warmth"--S&S) An ascetic, he opposed the reforming trend of modernism, by banning books that advocated such "heresies" and referred in his Lamentabili Sane  to "the corruption of dogmas".  "There are too many who have turned aside from the truth", he declared, " and in demanding a reform of discipline dare also to aspire to a reform of dogma and harass the  church with the sophisms used by its most violent opponents".   
    Pius was said to have considered abandoning the whole matter of papal diplomacy, but  finally decided that "the Sovereign Pontiff cannot separate politics from the authority which he excercises in faith and morals". He was largely responsible for the immense synthesis Code of Canon Law. In the Vatican he "swept away much petty ceremony" (tS) reorganizing the central administration, and he loosened Leo XIII's prohibition about Catholics voting, although the so-called "Roman question" remained unresolved. Termed by ODP as "a man of transparent goodness and humility" Pius X was canonized 40 years after his death. His will read: "I was born poor; I lived poor; I wish to die poor".
Sculptured tomb in St Peter's.

257. Benedict XV. b. Genoa as Giacomo Della Chiesa; elected 6 Sept 1914; d. 22 Jan 1922, aged 67. Elected only three months after being made cardinal, he maintained a neutral stance during the World War whose beginning  coincided with his election. In 1917 he justified his position when he declared he had tried "to maintain an absolute impartiality towards all belligerents, as becomes him who is the Common Father, and who loves all his children with an equal affection". His diplomatic neutrality, however,  brought censure from both sides, and later accusations of bias from the allied powers  after Germany promised the Vatican's autonomy when Italy had been defeated. Thus, the pope was not invited to be a participant in the 1919 peace settlement. Relations between the Vatican and the Italian state (the "Roman question") remained unresolved but the church became more amenable to Catholics taking part in elections.   
    Benedict accredited England and a dozen other countries to the Vatican, strengthened and extended missionary activities and beatified Joan of Arc. He emptied the Vatican's coffers in his efforts to help refugees and the wounded. Greatly admired by the Turks he was honored in Istanbul by a statue which declared him to be "the benefactor of all people, irrespective of nationality or religion".
Portrait by Antonius Fabris in the Vatican. Sulptured tomb in St Peter's.

258. Pius XI. b. Desio as Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti.  elected 12 Feb 1922; d. 10 Feb. 1939, aged 81. A skilled linguist he had served as a nuncio in Warsaw,  as archbishop of Milan and as Vatican librarian..  As pope, he reached agreements with a score of countries even including an old adversary, France, despite lengthy battles with the reactionary Charles Maurras who had an immense following in that country.. The 1929 Lateran Treaty with Mussolini recognized Vatican City's autonomy as an independent state, and  accepted Catholicism as the official religion of the Italian state, embodying in return the Holy See's acceptance of the kingdom of Italy. The Vatican was also indemnified for property taken over during the 1870 nationalist uprising. Pius XI stipulated that all candidates for higher church office must spend a year in Rome. S&S says he was famous for "towering rages" and even visiting diplomats "noted that the key word in the Vatican had become obedience". From his time in Poland he became  preoccupied with the threat of communism which, he said, "is intrinsically wrong and no one who would save Christian civilization may collaborate with it in any field whatsoever". But he also condemned rapacious capitalism which, he said, ruined souls through its "unquenchable thirst for material possessions".
   Pius excoriated the "gross and grave error of racialism" and tried to withdraw the church from politics, channeling its energies into the lay organization Catholic Action which he contended was the only weapon capable of combatting "the dizzy swirl of modern life". Though at first accepting of Hitler's Germany and the policies of Mussolini ("a man free from the prejudices of the politicians of the liberal school")  and Franco's Spain,  subsequent developments impelled Pius to publicly reject  the first two. By the mid-1930s, he had come to believe (says S&S) that Nazism was little better than the Bolshevism he had hoped it would counteract".  Attempting to patch up deteriorating Catholic-Jewish relations, he declared: "Spiritually we are Semites".  He also protested the anti-clerical actions of the Mexican government  and in his encyclical Quadragesimo Annio , grieved that so large a portion of mankind should "live undeservedly in miserable and wretched conditions", called for minimum wage laws, abolition of child labor, public housing, welfare for the poor. Pius greatly extended the church's worldwide missionary movement, more than doubling the number of native priests in various countries but opposed the growing ecunemical movement which he felt sought to dilute Catholicism. In 1931 he inaugurated the Vatican's radio station.

259. Pius XII. b. Rome as Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli; elected 2 March 1939; d. 9 Oct. 1958, aged 82. Fluent in seven languages, as secretary of state he had negotiated concordats with Austria and Germany   and he made a personal study of Marxism--already equated in his mind with Satanism--while serving in Berlin. But his diplomatic overtures as pope failed to avert the outbreak of the Second World War. Failing to condemn German aggression enough to satisfy his critics,  Pius XII referred to the "sinister shadow" threatening Christian Europe  and declined to be involved in "the purely temporal controversies and territorial rivalries between states".  Warning against seeking a dialog with Communists, he said: "It is inconsistent to wish to sit at the table of God and that of his enemies". He was sometimes ill-advised in his public statements, once declaring that Benito Mussolini was "a gift of Providence...a man free from the prejudices of the liberal school". He did, however, describe Hitler as "an untrustworthy scoundrel...a fundamentally wicked person".
    Although Pius worked hard for the relief of war victims, offering asylum to refugees, he was accused of failing to speak out strongly enough about war atrocities especially in regard to the persecution of Jews, but when the Germans started rounding them up in  Italy, Pius instructed Catholic institutions to harbor them. ODP suggests that "the veiled or generalized language traditional to the Curia was not a suitable instrument for dealing with cynically planned world domination and genocide". Pius, who discovered St Peter's tomb during excavations of the Basilica, was accompanied everywhere for 40 years  by a Bavarian nun, Josefine Lehnert, known as Mother Pasqualina  (nicknamed virgo potens  or la Popessa ). Pius was more sympathetic than his predecessor to the ecumenical movement and by creating more than 50 cardinals he  reduced the predominance of the Italian ones. (Since the 16th century the maximum had been 70, with a two-thirds majority vote needed at conclaves).

260. John XXIII. b. Bergamo as Angelo Giusppe Roncalli;  elected 28 Oct. 1958; d. 3 June 1963, aged 81. He served as a hospital orderly and chaplain during World War I, later being appointed by Pope Benedict XV to direct the Society for the Propagation of the Faith.  Pope Pius XII in 1953 appointed him  Patriarch of Venice and made him a cardinal. As a papal nuncio and later as pope, John  strove to improve relations between East and West both within the church and the temporal sphere; he organized the Ecumenical Council of Vatican II "to more effectively preserve and present the sacred deposit of Christian doctrine". He wrote: "Now more than ever...our intention is to serve man as such and not only Catholics; to defend above all and everywhere the rights of the human person...". He was "a security nightmare" (S&S) for a propensity for slipping out unguarded to visit hospitals and prisons.
   John welcomed for the first time to  Rome an Anglican archbishop (Geofffrey Fisher of Canterbury) and sent greetings to the patriarchs of Istanbul and Moscow. "His encyclicals and other utterances were more pastoral than dogmatic" (ODP). Among John's final acts was his worldwide address Pacem in terris  in which he emphasized human rights as the foundation of world peace. He took the name John XXIII "to rehabilitate" the name--that of his father--which he felt had been shamed by his 15th century namesake. A widespread rumor alleges that he was the first (and only) person to open an envelope which recorded a secret prophecy made by the Virgin Mary to a worshipper at Fatima, Portugal, on 13 May 1917. He was said to have been horrified by the contents which have never been made public,

261. Paul VI. b. Breschia as Giovanni Battista Montini.  elected 21 June 1963; d. 6 Aug. 1978, aged 81. A skilled diplomat, a subject he had taught at the papal academy, he traveled widely both before and during his papacy making a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, addressing the United Nations in New York and surviving a 1970 assassination attempt in Manila. Three years later he was persuaded by US ambassador Graham Martin not to receive a delegation of anti-Vietnam war activists. A close supporter of his predecessor, he reopened the Second Vatican Council and continued John XXIII's ecumenical policies meeting with Patriarch Athenagoras in Istanbul and with Britain's Archbishop of Canterbury in Rome. A Vatican insider after a long spell with the Secretariat of State, he had earlier stressed the Church's awareness of a need to reach out to the world "interpreting  and observing the needs of society in which it is working and observing the defects, the necessities, the sufferings and the hopes and aspirations that exist in human hearts".
   Paul raised the number of cardinals to 145, decreeing that a two-thirds plus one vote of no more than 120 cardinals would elect future popes, meeting in secret conclave between 15 and 20 days after the pope's death. His controversial 1968 Humanae Vitae  decreed that "every marital act must remain open to the transmission of life" as well as  reaffirming  the need for priests to remain celibate. But he also pronounced on religious freedom: "No one (should be) forced to act in a manner contrary to his own beliefs". ODP says he sold his tiara to benefit the poor and "characteristically he reduced the pomp and circumstance of the papacy"

262. John Paul I. b. Belluno as Albino Luciani. elected 26 Aug. 1978; d. 28 Sept. 1978, aged 66. Son of a left-leaning migrant worker, he eschewed pomp, encouraging parishes to help the poor by selling church artifacts  and proposing that wealthy churches tithe themselves to aid their counterparts in Third World countries. Nevetheless, he was a staunch foe of communism, declaring it to be incompatible with Christianity. He had announced plans to restore the Latin Mass and orthodox theology, in short to return the Church to traditional rules and behavior. Three weeks after a simple  and unostentatious investiture, he was found dead in bed, apparently of a heart attack, provoking rumors (and a best-selling book) that he had been poisoned because of his plans to reorganize the church hierarchy and investigate irregularities in the finances of the Vatican Bank. However, affirms ODP, "the evidence produced was a tissue of improbabilities".

263. John Paul II.  b. near Krakow, Poland as Karol Wojtyla;  elected 16 Oct. 1978, d. April 2, 2005  as the first non-Italian in almost five centuries. Son of a retired army officer,  and whose mother died when he was eight years old, the pontiff-to-be displayed  a penchant for poetry and the stage before entering the priesthood  at 24. He  became archbishop of Cracow 17 years later and subsequently a cardinal. His courageous efforts on behalf of the church against the communist Polish regime worked to his advantage, when at the 1978 conclave, an overwhelming majority voted for his accession as the first non-Italian pope since the Dutchman who became Pope Adrian VI (1522-23). A traditionalist, he  commented that "nobody can make of theology a simple collection of his own personal ideas," and he dismissed certain activists in the church with a speech in Mexico in which he declared: "We do not need or want any politicking priests or priests who take up arms in revolutionary movements". In his book, Crossing the Threshold of Hope  after quoting St Paul: "Proclaim the word; be persistent whether it is convenient or inconvenient...for the time will come when people will not tolerate sound doctrine" John Paul comments: "Unfortunately, don't these words...seem to characterize the situation today?"
    In his book John-Paul also commented on the situation of women, adding: "Women's dignity has often been unacknowledged and their prerogatives misrepresented; they have often been relegated to the margins of society and even reduced to servitude..." Already widely traveled, John Paul II  continued to make annual foreign pilgrimages,  often kissing the ground on his arrival, conducting mass before huge crowds and preaching ecunemicalism, freedom of worship and the rights of workers. He has been described as "the first media pope". A hard-liner on such traditional Catholic subjects as priestly celibacy,  abortion, same -sex marriage and liberation theology, he nevertheless condemned oppression and intolerance, extending recognition to Israel and being the first pope to visit a synagogue where he shook the hand of the chief rabbi of Rome.  On 13 May, 1981, he was shot and wounded by a young Turkish dissident who believed he escaped with his life due to the intervention of the Blessed Virgin Mary and visited sites (Knock, Lourdes, Fatima, and Czestochowa) specifically associated with her apparitions. His capacities in his later years were slow due to the onset of Parkinson's disease together with knee and hip ailments. When he died, his 26-year pontificate was exceeded only by the 31 years served by Pius IX.

Beginning with Martin V (1417-31), all popes have been depicted on bronze medallions, a collection of which is in the Vatican library.  All popes are included in a mosaic of medallions in the Basilica of St Paul's. It began as a frescoe by St. Magus in 498.

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Index of References

OTHER BOOKS consulted or quoted from include:

The Golden Legend (GL);
Butler's Lives of the Saints  (B);
A Catholic Dictionary
(ACD);
The Popes' Rights & Wrongs
  (PRW);
History of the Popes
  (HP);
The Dictionary of Sects, Heresies
&c (DSH);
History of the Popes
  by Leonard Van Renke (LVR);
A Biographical Dictionary of the Saints  (BDS);
The Book of Popes
(BP);
A Source Book 
(SB) for Ancient Church History;
Saints & Their Emblems in English Churches
 (StE);
A Catholic Dictionary
-(CD);
The Popes, a concise biographical history
, (tP);
The Bad Popes
  (TBP);
The Penguin Dictionary of the Saints  (PDS);
New Catholic Encyclopedia (NCE);
The Decline & Fall of the Roman Empire  (D&F);
the Oxford Dictionary of Popes (ODP);
Somni Pontifici Romani
  (ISPR);
the Book of Saints  (BS);
Saints & Sinners (S&S).

For a complete list of references, click here.