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Popes & Anti-Popes AD 200-300

AD 0-100 AD 100-200 AD 200-300 AD 300-400 AD 400-500 AD 500-600 AD 600-700 AD 700-800 AD 800-900 AD 900-1000 AD 1000-1100 AD 1100-1200 AD 1200-1300 AD 1300-1400 AD 1400-1500 AD 1500-1600 AD 1600-1700 AD 1700-1800 AD 1800-1900 AD 1900-2000

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Alphabetical list of Popes

96    Adrian I  (772-75)
107  Adrian II (867-872)
110  S. Adrian III (884-885)
168  Adrian IV  (1154-9)
185
  Adrian V  (1276)
217
 Adrian VI  (1522-3)
57
    S. Agapitus  (535-6)
130
  Agapitus II (946-955)
79
    S. Agatho  (678-81)
6    S. Alexander (105-115)
155  Alexander II (1061-73)
169
 Alexander III (1159-81)
180
 Alexander IV  (1254-61)
anti-pope  Alexander V
213
  Alexander VI (1492-1503)
236
 Alexander VII (1655-67)
240
 Alexander VIII (1689-91)
3.
    S. Anacletus  (76-93)
39.
  S. Anastasius  (399-401)
50.
 Anastasius  II (496-98)
121
.  Anastasius III  (911-13)
167.
  Anastasius IV  (1153-4)
11.
 S. Anicetus  (155-166)
19.  S. Anterus  (236)

62
  Benedict I  (575-9)
81.
  S. Benedict II (684-5)
105
.  Benedict III  (655-8)
118.
  Benedict IV  (900-903)
133.
  Benedict V  (964-6)
135.
  Benedict VI  (973-4)
136
.  Benedict VII  (974-83)
144.  Benedict VIII  (1012-24)
146.
  Benedict IX  (1042)
anti-pope  Benedict X  (1058)
193.
  Benedict XI (1303-4)
196.
  Benedict XII (1335-42)
244.
  Benedict XIII (1724-30)
246.
  Benedict XIV (1740-58)
247.
  Benedict XV  (1914-22)
42.
  S. Boniface  I  (418-22)
55.  Boniface II (530-2)
66
.  Boniface III (607)
67.  S. Boniface IV  (608-15)
69.
  Boniface V  (619-25)
113.  Boniface VI  (896)
anti-pope
 Boniface  VII (974)
192.  Boniface VIII (1294-1303)
202.  Boniface IX (1389-1404)

28.
 S. Caius  ( 283-96)
16.
 S. Callistus  ( 217-22)
161.
 Callistus  II  ( 1119-24)
208.
 Calistus III  ( 1455-58)
43.
  S. Celestine I ( 422-32)
164.  Celestine II  ( 1143-4)
174.
  Celestine III  ( 1191-8)
178.  Celestine IV  ( 1241)
191.
  Celestine V  ( 1294)
4.
   S. Clement I  ( c.91-101)
149.
 Clement II  (1046-7)
173.  Clement III  ( 1187-91)
182.
  Clement IV  (1265-8)
194.  Clement V  ( 1305-14)
197.
 Clement VI  ( 1342-52)
218.
 Clement VII  ( 1523-34)
230.
 Clement VIII  ( 1592-1605)
237.
 Clement IX  ( 1667-9)
238.
 Clement X  ( 1670-6)
242.  Clement  XI  ( 1700-21)
245.
 Clement XII  ( 1730-40)
247.  Clement XIII  ( 1758-69)
248.
  Clement XIV  ( 1769-74)
83.   Conon  ( 686-7)
21.
  S. Cornelius  ( 251-3)
88.
   Constantine I  ( 708-15)

37.
 S. Damasus I  ( 366-84)
150.  Damasus  II  ( 1048)
68.
St. Deusdedit (615-18)
25.   Dionysios  ( 260-8)
78.   Donus  (676-8)

13.
 S. Eleutherus  (175-89)
75.
 S. Eugenius I  ( 654-7)
100.
 Eugenius  II  ( 824-7)
166.
  Eugenius III  (1145-53)
206.
  Eugenius  IV (1431-47)
31.
  Eusebius  ( 310)
27.
  S. Eutychian  (275-83)
5.
  Evaristus  (101-9)

20.
 Fabian  (236-50)
26. 
Felix I  (269-74)
anti-pope  Felix II (355-65)
48.
 S. Felix  III (483-492)
54.
 S. Felix  IV  (526-30)
anti-pope 
Felix V (1439-49)
112
.  Formosus  (891-96)

49.
St Gelasius (492-6)
160.
Gelasius II (1118-9) 
64. Gregory I (590-604)
89.
Gregory II  (715-31)
90.
Gregory III (731-41)
102.
Gregory IV (827-44)
139.
Gregory V (996-9)
anti-pope  Gregory VI  (1012)
148.
Gregory VI (1045-6)
156.
Gregory VII (1073-85)
anti-pope
  Gregory VIII (1187)
172.
Gregory VIII (1187)
177. Gregory IX  (1227-41)
183. Gregory X  (1271-6)
200.
Gregory XI (1370-8)
204.
Gregory XII (1405-15)
225.
Gregory XIII  (1527-85)
228.
Gregory XIV  (1590-1)
233.
Gregory XV  (1621-3)
253.
Gregory XVI  (1831-46)

46.
Hilarus  (461-8)
anti-pope 
Hippolytus  (217-35)
70.
Honorius I  (625-38)
anti-pope
  Honorius II (1061-4)
162. Honorius II  (1124-30)
176. Honorius III  (1216-27)
189.
Honorius IV  (1285-7)
52. Hormisdas  (514-23)
9. St.Hyginus  (c. 138-42)

40.
Innocent I  (401-17)
163.
Innocent II  (1130-41)
anti-pope  Innocent III (1179-80)
175.
Innocent III  (1198-1216)
179.
Innocent IV  (1243-54)
184.
Innocent V  (1276)
198.
Innocent VI (1352-62)
203.
Innocent VII (1404-6)
212.
Innocent VIII  (1484-92)
229.
Innocent IX  (1591)
235.
Innocent X  (1644-55)
239.
Innocent XI  (1676-89)
241. Innocent XII  (1691-1700)
243.
Innocent XIII  (1721-4)

53.
John I  (523-6)
56. John II  (533-5)
61. John III  (561-74)
72.
John IV  (640-2)
82.
John V  (685-6)
85.
John VI  (701-5)
86.
John VII  (705-7
anti-pope
 John  (844)
108
. John VIII  (872-82)
117. John IX  (898-900)
123.
John X  (914-28)
126.
John XI  (931-6)
131.
John XII  (955-64)
134.
John XIII (965-72)
137,
John XIV  (983-4)
138.
John XV  (985-96)
anti-pope  John XVI  (997-8)
141. John XVII  (1003)
142.
John XVIII  (1003-9)
145. John XIX  (1024-32)
186.
John XXI  (1276-7)
195.
John XXII  (1316-34)
anti-pope
  John XXIII  (1410-15)
260.
John XXIII   (1958-63)
262.
John Paul I  (1978)
263.
John Paul II (1978-2005)
35.
Julius I  (337-52)
215.
Julius II  (1503-13)
220.
Julius III (1550-5)

122.
Lando  (913-14)
anti-pope
  Laurentius (498-9; 501-6)
45.
Leo I (440-61)
80. Leo II  (682-3)
97.
St Leo III (795-816)
104.
St Leo IV  (847-55)
119. Leo V  (903)
124. Leo VI (928)
127.
Leo VII  (936-9)
132.
Leo VIII (963-5)
151. Leo IX  (1049-54)
216. Leo X  (1513-21)
231.
Leo XI  (1605)
250.
Leo XII  (1823-9)
255.
Leo XIII (1878-1903)
36.
Liberius  (352-66)
2.
 Linus  (c. 66-78)
22. St. Lucius I  (253-4)
165.
Lucius II  (1144-5)
170.
Lucius III  (1181-5)

29.
Marcellinus  (c.296-304)
30. Marcellus I  (306-8)
221. Marcellus II  (1555)
109.
Marinus I (Martin II) (882-4)
129.
Marinus II  (Martin III) (942-6)
34. St Mark  (336)
74.
Martin I  (649-53)
188.
Martin IV  (1281-5)
205. Martin V  (1417-31)
32.
Miltiades  (311-14)

106.
St Nicholas  (858-67)
154.
Nicholas II  (1056-61)
187.
Nicholas III  (1277-80)
190.
Nicholas IV  (1288-92)
anti-pope  Nicholas V  (1328-30)
207.
Nicholas V  (1447-55)
anti-pope
Novatian  (251-8)

anti-pope 
Paschal  (687)
99. Paschal I  (817-24)
159.
Paschal II  (1099-1118)
anti-pope
  Paschal III  (1164-8)
94.
St Paul  (757-67)
210.
Paul II  (1464-71)
219.
Paul III  (1534-49)
222. Paul IV  (1555-9)
232.
Paul V  (1605-21)
261. Paul VI  (1963-78)
60.
Pelagius  (556-61)
63.
Pelagius II  (579-90)
1.  St. Peter (died c. 64)
anti-pope  Philip  (768)
10.
St Pius I  (c. 142-55)
209.
 Pius II  (1458-64)
214.
 Pius III  (1503)
223.
Pius IV  (1559-65)
224.
St Pius V  (1566-72)
249.
Pius VI  (1775-99)
250.
Pius VII  (1800-23)
252.
Pius VIII  (1829-30)
254.
Pius IX  (1846-78)
256.
St Pius X  (1903-14)
258.
Pius XI  (1922-39)
259.
Pius XII  (1939-58)
18.
St Pontian  (230-5)

115.
Romanus  (897)

65.
Sabinian  (604-6)
84. Sergius I  (687-701)
103.
Sergius II  (844-7)
120. Sergius III  (904-11)
143.
Sergius IV  (1009-12)
71. Severinus  (640)
58.
Silverius  (536-7)
33. Sylvester i  (314-35)
140. Sylvester II  (999-1003)
147.
Sylvester III (1045)
anti-pope
  Sylvester IV (1105-11)
47.
St Simplicius  (468-83)
38.
Siricius  (384-99)
87.
Sisinnius  (708)
7.
Sixtus I  (c.116-125)
24.
Sixtus II  (257-8)
44.
St Sixtus  III  (432-40)
211.
Sixtus IV  (1471-84)
226.
Sixtus V (1585-90)
12.
St  Soter  (c. 166-74)
23.
Stephen I  (254-7)
92. Stephen II  (752-7)
95.
Stephen III (768-72)
98.
Stephen IV  (816-17)
111. Stephen V  (885-91)
114.
Stephen VI  (896-7)
125.
Stephen VII  (928-31)
128.
Stephen VIII  (939-42)
153.
Stephen IX  (1057-8)
51.
St. Symmachus  (498-514)

8.
Telesphorus  (125-136)
73. Theodore I  (642-9)
anti-pope
  Theodore  (687)
116.
Theodore II  (897)
anti-pope  Theodoric  (1100-1)

17.
St. Urban I (222-30)
158
. Urban II  (1088-99)
171.
Urban III  (1185-7)
181. Urban IV  (1261-4)
199.
Urban V  (1362-70)
201.
Urban VI  (1378-89)
227.
Urban VII  (1590)
234.
Urban VIII  (1623-44)
anti-pope
 Ursinus  (366-7)

101.
Valentine  (827)
14.
St. Victor I  (189-98)
152. Victor II  (1055-7)
157.
Victor III  (1086-7)
anti-pope
 Victor IV  (1138)
anti-pope
  Victor V  (1159-64)
59.
Vigilius  (537-55)
76. St. Vitalian  (657-72)

91.
Zacharias  (741-52)
15.
Zephyrinus  (198-217)
41.
St. Zosimus  (417-18)

 

The Popes, in chronological order

AD 200-300

16.  St Callistus I  b. Rome;  elected  217., d. 222. He was forgiving of repentant  sinners, which angered one faction of the church and engendered the bitter emnity of anti-pope Hippolytus,  (described by ODP as "intransigent, ambitious and a strict, old-fashioned rigorist") whose prolific Greek writings particularly  Philosopheumena  accused Callistus of modalism or not truly recognizing the principle of the Trinity. Callistus, who favored reconciliation for "sinners",  claimed the "power of the keys" which had been granted to St Peter--and by implication to his successors-- which allowed persons who had been expelled from the church to be reinstated after suitable penance (Ir).
   Noting that this forgiveness extended to adulterers, Tertullian asked sarcastically: "Where shall we post up this generous concession--on the doors of brothels?" Uz quotes Hippolytus' charge that Callistus found abortion acceptable. Callistus may have been beaten to death by a rioting mob when he tried to convert a tavern into a church (BS) or alternatively to collect some debts in a synagogue (StE). Said to have been thrown into a well atop which now stands in  S. Maria in Travestere. LP notes that he introduced three fast days a year when Christians should abstain from corn, wine and oil.
12th c. mosaic in S. Maria in Trastevere. 

anti-pope  Hippolytus (217-235)

17. St Urban I. b. Rome; elected 222, d. 230.  A peaceful reign of eight years (Eu) under Emperor Alexander Severus, despite the  challenge of Hippolytus ("a scholar and Biblical critic of wide learning and interests but possessing little originality or critical judgment" -StE). Urban built  the church named for S. Cecilia after converting her to Christianity (ISPR). According to DP, some of the information in LP mixed him up with the legend of St. Cecilia and was  "anachronistic fantasy". 
Bust of St Urban in the Staatlkiche Museum, Berlin.

18. St Pontian. b. Rome; elected 28 Aug, 230; d. 28 Sept, 235. Exiled by the anti-Christian emperor Maximinus who, reviving the persecution  of Christians,  deported him to the Sardinian mines along with Hippolytus, the anti-pope who had battled with Pontian's two predecessors.  LC says Pontian resigned in 235 and both he and Hippolytus died on Sardinia after a "conjectured" (ODP) reconciliation and his body brought  back to Rome (LP) by Fabian, bishop of Antioch.
Most popes from St.  Pontian onwards are depicted on medallions, a collection of which (attr. to Giovanni Battista Pozzi, c. 1570, is in the British Museum).

19. St Anterus. b. Greece; elected 21 Nov. 235; d. 3 Jan. 236.  His Greek name meaning "love returned" suggests (tP) that he was born a slave. Anterus suffered martydom (LP) at the hands of Emperor Maximinus but LC says he "fell asleep" and doesn't list him as a martyr. "LP's report that that he collected and preserved the records of martyrs is plainly "a romantic anachronism"(ODP). He became the first pope to be buried in the catacombs of Callistus which was to become the official burial place of the bishops of Rome. Vicious persecution of Christians in this era of Emperor Maximinus Thrax, included torture by roasting, being thrown among wild animals and even the slow extraction of entrails.

20. St Fabian. b. Rome; elected 10 Jan, 236;  d. 20 Jan, 250. A farmer who happened to be in Rome as the new pope was being chosen. Supposedly a blue dove came down from the sky (Eu) and settled  on his head which was taken as a sign that he was to be  chosen.  Enlarged and built Rome's cemeteries (LC); ordained Novatian (ODP) later to be an anti-pope, and divided Rome into seven regions, each supervised by a deacon. Emperor Gordian III  left Christians alone but his successor, Decius, commenced persecutions of Christians who--away from the mainstream--refused to sacrifice to the old gods. Pope Fabian was imprisoned and died in jail.  Bishop Cyprian,  author of many theological treatises described him as an "incomparable man" of goodness and purity. 
Painting by Giovani di Paolo in London's National Gallery.

21. St Cornelius. b. Rome; elected March 251; d. June 253. The election had been delayed for a year because of Decius' continuing persecution. Cornelius was a son of Roman  nobility who had worked his way up the church hierarchy chosen, according to  Bishop Cyprian of Carthage, for his prudence, goodness and humility. When he finally took office, his forgiving nature offended the Roman cleric Novatian who had been de facto church spokesman during the gap in authority and who objected to forgiving the lapsi  (those had saved their lives by taking pagan oaths during Decian's time and now sought forgiveness). In a letter to Cyprian, Cornelius wrote that "they have perceived their error,  recognized the poisonous, serpentine wiles of the evildoer...and have returned to the Church".
   Novatian set himself up as a rival  Bishop of Rome, was condemned by councils at Carthage and Rome and subsequently excommunicated. Refusing to make the required sacrifices to pagan gods Cornelius was exiled to Civita Vecchia by Emperor Gallus where he died prematurely. Patron saint of oxen in France where he is depicted holding a horn (cornu ).
12th c. mosaic in S. Maria in Trastevere; 6th c. mosaic at Ravenna in  S. Apollinare Nuovo.

anti-pope  Novatian  (251-258)

22. St Lucius I. b. Rome; elected 25 June, 253; d. 5 March, 254. Exiled on taking office, returning at the death of the emperor Gallus and the emergence of Emperor Valerian but serving only eight months thereafter. Cyprian, bishop of Carthage, commended him on suffering for his faith and made mention of his forgiving stance towards apostates who had repented. An ascetic, Lucius  opposed men and women living together unless blood relations (ISPR). Died as a martyr by beheading (LP) or of natural causes (LC) and buried in the cemetery of Callistus.
Medallion by Bernini in St Peter's.

23. St Stephen I. b. Rome; elected 12 May, 254; d. 2 Aug, 257. More trouble with  Novatian and a disagreement with Bishop Cyprian over whether it was necessary to rebaptise heretics. Stephen, who came from an aristocratic Roman family and was described as "imperious, impatient and high-handed" (S&S) said it was not and excommunicated some Asia Minor churches which disagreed with him. "It was the first major crisis of the papacy" (comments S&S) , "charged with significance for the future". LP claims Stephen was imprisoned, then beheaded by the emperor's men. GL adds that he was ordered to sacrifice to idols  "or else to be slain by divers torments" and that "when they came, they found him singing mass, and that done they beheaded him in his seat".  Bishop Cyprian died the following year, also a victim of Emperor Valerian's persecution. "Authoritarian by temperament and lacking in tact" is tP's assessment of Stephen.

24. St Sixtus II, b. Greece; elected 30 Aug, 257; d. 6 Aug, 258. Tried to settle the foregoing disputes but he was seized on Valerian's orders, along with his deacons, while officiating at a probably secret religious ceremony in the Callistus cemetery. He was executed  while sitting in his chair and was later venerated as a martyr.  "Taken to offer sacrifices to demons but he despised the commands of Valerian" is LP's version. BS adds that his deacon Lawrence, ordered to deliver church treasures to the emperor, presented some poor people under the church's care and was roasted to death for his insolence. Doubting this legend, tP adds: "If, however, he merely suffered the fate of his fellow deacons, decapitation, it is difficult to account for his exceptional celebrity".   
   Novatian was another victim of the emperor the same year. Stiffening the resolve of the survivors, Carthage's bishop Cyprian  had described  Sixtus as "as good and peaceful man" wrote of his hope "that every one of us may think less of death than of immortality". 
Depicted in 6th c. mosaic in Ravenna; portrait by Raphael in Dresden Art Gallery.

25. St Dionysus. b. Turio; elected 22 July 260; d. 26 Dec 268. His succession was delayed for almost two years because of barbarian attacks on  Rome and the fact that all seven church deacons had been killed along with Sextus. The persecution of Christians who, wrote Tacitus,  had been convicted of "hatred of the human race",  was ended in 260  with the ascension of the emperor Gallanius who restored to the church most of its property. Dionysus, reports tP, ransomed Christians who had been captured and sent to Caaesaria. LP notes that in reorganizing and restoring the church, Dionysus allocated parishes to specific priests.

26. St Felix I. b. Rome; elected 5 Jan, 269; d. 30 Dec, 274.  Approved the expulsion of Antioch bishop Paul of Samosata (whose "ecclesiastical jurisdiction was venal and rapacious"- D&F) for heresies which had been condemned by a synod of bishops.  Samosata, explains tP,  taught the Adoptionist heresy "that Jesus was a man who by the perfect union of his will with God's had merited deification". Felix was persecuted by the emperor Aurelian  but his death as a martyr "appears to be an error due to confusion with another Felix" says BS. Out of 4,500 names in the Roman Martyrology  (RM), 67 saints are named Felix.

27. St. Eutychian. b. Tuscany;  elected  4 Jan, 275; d. 7 Dec, 283. No reliable information about his activities or personality survives, says ODP, which reports that his pontificate fell wholly within the period of peace between the persecutions of Valerian and Diocletian, a period when the Roman church was able to consolidate its position. LP's account of Eutychian's activities are dismissed  as "either anachronistic conjecture or pure fantasy".

28. St Caius. b. Dalmatia; elected 17 Dec, 283; d. 22 April 296. Nephew of the emperor Diocletian he decreed that bishops must rise through church ranks "step by step to the higher place" (LP).  The ODP says LP's details are "suspect" or "anachronistic" and all that is clear is that, just as with his predecessor, his pontificate took place during a peaceful time for the church.

29. St Marcellinus. b. Rome; elected 30 June, 296; d. 25 Oct, 304. After 19 years as emperor and noting some suspicious fires in the imperial palace, Diocletian  in 303 began to persecute "that hated sect known as Christians who actively work against the good of the state, are intolerant, practice strange rituals and frighten good citizens". Despite the fact that the empress was a Christian, he destroyed churches and burned religious texts.  Marcellinus, a bishop, threatened by the emperor that "they would make him die by diverse torments" (GL) made obeisance to pagan idols, the reason for his eventual ommission from the list of popes compiled by Damasus.
   Feeling remorse for his lapse, Marcellinus subsequently renounced his weakness. "He cried out in tears saying, 'It repenteth me sorely for my former ignorance'...so inspired by penitence he was beheaded" (LP). According to BS, however: "Later apologists over-compensated and invented the story of his remorse and subsequent martyrdom". PDS claims that future pope Damasus, as a boy, talked to Marcellinus' executioner.  

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Index of References

OTHER BOOKS consulted or quoted from include:

The Golden Legend (GL);
Butler's Lives of the Saints  (B);
A Catholic Dictionary
(ACD);
The Popes' Rights & Wrongs
  (PRW);
History of the Popes
  (HP);
The Dictionary of Sects, Heresies
&c (DSH);
History of the Popes
  by Leonard Van Renke (LVR);
A Biographical Dictionary of the Saints  (BDS);
The Book of Popes
(BP);
A Source Book 
(SB) for Ancient Church History;
Saints & Their Emblems in English Churches
 (StE);
A Catholic Dictionary
-(CD);
The Popes, a concise biographical history
, (tP);
The Bad Popes
  (TBP);
The Penguin Dictionary of the Saints  (PDS);
New Catholic Encyclopedia (NCE);
The Decline & Fall of the Roman Empire  (D&F);
the Oxford Dictionary of Popes (ODP);
Somni Pontifici Romani
  (ISPR);
the Book of Saints  (BS);
Saints & Sinners (S&S).

For a complete list of references, click here.