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Popes & Anti-Popes AD 900-1000

AD 0-100 AD 100-200 AD 200-300 AD 300-400 AD 400-500 AD 500-600 AD 600-700 AD 700-800 AD 800-900 AD 900-1000 AD 1000-1100 AD 1100-1200 AD 1200-1300 AD 1300-1400 AD 1400-1500 AD 1500-1600 AD 1600-1700 AD 1700-1800 AD 1800-1900 AD 1900-2000

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Alphabetical list of Popes

96    Adrian I  (772-75)
107  Adrian II (867-872)
110  S. Adrian III (884-885)
168  Adrian IV  (1154-9)
185
  Adrian V  (1276)
217
 Adrian VI  (1522-3)
57
    S. Agapitus  (535-6)
130
  Agapitus II (946-955)
79
    S. Agatho  (678-81)
6    S. Alexander (105-115)
155  Alexander II (1061-73)
169
 Alexander III (1159-81)
180
 Alexander IV  (1254-61)
anti-pope  Alexander V
213
  Alexander VI (1492-1503)
236
 Alexander VII (1655-67)
240
 Alexander VIII (1689-91)
3.
    S. Anacletus  (76-93)
39.
  S. Anastasius  (399-401)
50.
 Anastasius  II (496-98)
121
.  Anastasius III  (911-13)
167.
  Anastasius IV  (1153-4)
11.
 S. Anicetus  (155-166)
19.  S. Anterus  (236)

62
  Benedict I  (575-9)
81.
  S. Benedict II (684-5)
105
.  Benedict III  (655-8)
118.
  Benedict IV  (900-903)
133.
  Benedict V  (964-6)
135.
  Benedict VI  (973-4)
136
.  Benedict VII  (974-83)
144.  Benedict VIII  (1012-24)
146.
  Benedict IX  (1042)
anti-pope  Benedict X  (1058)
193.
  Benedict XI (1303-4)
196.
  Benedict XII (1335-42)
244.
  Benedict XIII (1724-30)
246.
  Benedict XIV (1740-58)
247.
  Benedict XV  (1914-22)
42.
  S. Boniface  I  (418-22)
55.  Boniface II (530-2)
66
.  Boniface III (607)
67.  S. Boniface IV  (608-15)
69.
  Boniface V  (619-25)
113.  Boniface VI  (896)
anti-pope
 Boniface  VII (974)
192.  Boniface VIII (1294-1303)
202.  Boniface IX (1389-1404)

28.
 S. Caius  ( 283-96)
16.
 S. Callistus  ( 217-22)
161.
 Callistus  II  ( 1119-24)
208.
 Calistus III  ( 1455-58)
43.
  S. Celestine I ( 422-32)
164.  Celestine II  ( 1143-4)
174.
  Celestine III  ( 1191-8)
178.  Celestine IV  ( 1241)
191.
  Celestine V  ( 1294)
4.
   S. Clement I  ( c.91-101)
149.
 Clement II  (1046-7)
173.  Clement III  ( 1187-91)
182.
  Clement IV  (1265-8)
194.  Clement V  ( 1305-14)
197.
 Clement VI  ( 1342-52)
218.
 Clement VII  ( 1523-34)
230.
 Clement VIII  ( 1592-1605)
237.
 Clement IX  ( 1667-9)
238.
 Clement X  ( 1670-6)
242.  Clement  XI  ( 1700-21)
245.
 Clement XII  ( 1730-40)
247.  Clement XIII  ( 1758-69)
248.
  Clement XIV  ( 1769-74)
83.   Conon  ( 686-7)
21.
  S. Cornelius  ( 251-3)
88.
   Constantine I  ( 708-15)

37.
 S. Damasus I  ( 366-84)
150.  Damasus  II  ( 1048)
68.
St. Deusdedit (615-18)
25.   Dionysios  ( 260-8)
78.   Donus  (676-8)

13.
 S. Eleutherus  (175-89)
75.
 S. Eugenius I  ( 654-7)
100.
 Eugenius  II  ( 824-7)
166.
  Eugenius III  (1145-53)
206.
  Eugenius  IV (1431-47)
31.
  Eusebius  ( 310)
27.
  S. Eutychian  (275-83)
5.
  Evaristus  (101-9)

20.
 Fabian  (236-50)
26. 
Felix I  (269-74)
anti-pope  Felix II (355-65)
48.
 S. Felix  III (483-492)
54.
 S. Felix  IV  (526-30)
anti-pope 
Felix V (1439-49)
112
.  Formosus  (891-96)

49.
St Gelasius (492-6)
160.
Gelasius II (1118-9) 
64. Gregory I (590-604)
89.
Gregory II  (715-31)
90.
Gregory III (731-41)
102.
Gregory IV (827-44)
139.
Gregory V (996-9)
anti-pope  Gregory VI  (1012)
148.
Gregory VI (1045-6)
156.
Gregory VII (1073-85)
anti-pope
  Gregory VIII (1187)
172.
Gregory VIII (1187)
177. Gregory IX  (1227-41)
183. Gregory X  (1271-6)
200.
Gregory XI (1370-8)
204.
Gregory XII (1405-15)
225.
Gregory XIII  (1527-85)
228.
Gregory XIV  (1590-1)
233.
Gregory XV  (1621-3)
253.
Gregory XVI  (1831-46)

46.
Hilarus  (461-8)
anti-pope 
Hippolytus  (217-35)
70.
Honorius I  (625-38)
anti-pope
  Honorius II (1061-4)
162. Honorius II  (1124-30)
176. Honorius III  (1216-27)
189.
Honorius IV  (1285-7)
52. Hormisdas  (514-23)
9. St.Hyginus  (c. 138-42)

40.
Innocent I  (401-17)
163.
Innocent II  (1130-41)
anti-pope  Innocent III (1179-80)
175.
Innocent III  (1198-1216)
179.
Innocent IV  (1243-54)
184.
Innocent V  (1276)
198.
Innocent VI (1352-62)
203.
Innocent VII (1404-6)
212.
Innocent VIII  (1484-92)
229.
Innocent IX  (1591)
235.
Innocent X  (1644-55)
239.
Innocent XI  (1676-89)
241. Innocent XII  (1691-1700)
243.
Innocent XIII  (1721-4)

53.
John I  (523-6)
56. John II  (533-5)
61. John III  (561-74)
72.
John IV  (640-2)
82.
John V  (685-6)
85.
John VI  (701-5)
86.
John VII  (705-7
anti-pope
 John  (844)
108
. John VIII  (872-82)
117. John IX  (898-900)
123.
John X  (914-28)
126.
John XI  (931-6)
131.
John XII  (955-64)
134.
John XIII (965-72)
137,
John XIV  (983-4)
138.
John XV  (985-96)
anti-pope  John XVI  (997-8)
141. John XVII  (1003)
142.
John XVIII  (1003-9)
145. John XIX  (1024-32)
186.
John XXI  (1276-7)
195.
John XXII  (1316-34)
anti-pope
  John XXIII  (1410-15)
260.
John XXIII   (1958-63)
262.
John Paul I  (1978)
263.
John Paul II (1978-2005)
35.
Julius I  (337-52)
215.
Julius II  (1503-13)
220.
Julius III (1550-5)

122.
Lando  (913-14)
anti-pope
  Laurentius (498-9; 501-6)
45.
Leo I (440-61)
80. Leo II  (682-3)
97.
St Leo III (795-816)
104.
St Leo IV  (847-55)
119. Leo V  (903)
124. Leo VI (928)
127.
Leo VII  (936-9)
132.
Leo VIII (963-5)
151. Leo IX  (1049-54)
216. Leo X  (1513-21)
231.
Leo XI  (1605)
250.
Leo XII  (1823-9)
255.
Leo XIII (1878-1903)
36.
Liberius  (352-66)
2.
 Linus  (c. 66-78)
22. St. Lucius I  (253-4)
165.
Lucius II  (1144-5)
170.
Lucius III  (1181-5)

29.
Marcellinus  (c.296-304)
30. Marcellus I  (306-8)
221. Marcellus II  (1555)
109.
Marinus I (Martin II) (882-4)
129.
Marinus II  (Martin III) (942-6)
34. St Mark  (336)
74.
Martin I  (649-53)
188.
Martin IV  (1281-5)
205. Martin V  (1417-31)
32.
Miltiades  (311-14)

106.
St Nicholas  (858-67)
154.
Nicholas II  (1056-61)
187.
Nicholas III  (1277-80)
190.
Nicholas IV  (1288-92)
anti-pope  Nicholas V  (1328-30)
207.
Nicholas V  (1447-55)
anti-pope
Novatian  (251-8)

anti-pope 
Paschal  (687)
99. Paschal I  (817-24)
159.
Paschal II  (1099-1118)
anti-pope
  Paschal III  (1164-8)
94.
St Paul  (757-67)
210.
Paul II  (1464-71)
219.
Paul III  (1534-49)
222. Paul IV  (1555-9)
232.
Paul V  (1605-21)
261. Paul VI  (1963-78)
60.
Pelagius  (556-61)
63.
Pelagius II  (579-90)
1.  St. Peter (died c. 64)
anti-pope  Philip  (768)
10.
St Pius I  (c. 142-55)
209.
 Pius II  (1458-64)
214.
 Pius III  (1503)
223.
Pius IV  (1559-65)
224.
St Pius V  (1566-72)
249.
Pius VI  (1775-99)
250.
Pius VII  (1800-23)
252.
Pius VIII  (1829-30)
254.
Pius IX  (1846-78)
256.
St Pius X  (1903-14)
258.
Pius XI  (1922-39)
259.
Pius XII  (1939-58)
18.
St Pontian  (230-5)

115.
Romanus  (897)

65.
Sabinian  (604-6)
84. Sergius I  (687-701)
103.
Sergius II  (844-7)
120. Sergius III  (904-11)
143.
Sergius IV  (1009-12)
71. Severinus  (640)
58.
Silverius  (536-7)
33. Sylvester i  (314-35)
140. Sylvester II  (999-1003)
147.
Sylvester III (1045)
anti-pope
  Sylvester IV (1105-11)
47.
St Simplicius  (468-83)
38.
Siricius  (384-99)
87.
Sisinnius  (708)
7.
Sixtus I  (c.116-125)
24.
Sixtus II  (257-8)
44.
St Sixtus  III  (432-40)
211.
Sixtus IV  (1471-84)
226.
Sixtus V (1585-90)
12.
St  Soter  (c. 166-74)
23.
Stephen I  (254-7)
92. Stephen II  (752-7)
95.
Stephen III (768-72)
98.
Stephen IV  (816-17)
111. Stephen V  (885-91)
114.
Stephen VI  (896-7)
125.
Stephen VII  (928-31)
128.
Stephen VIII  (939-42)
153.
Stephen IX  (1057-8)
51.
St. Symmachus  (498-514)

8.
Telesphorus  (125-136)
73. Theodore I  (642-9)
anti-pope
  Theodore  (687)
116.
Theodore II  (897)
anti-pope  Theodoric  (1100-1)

17.
St. Urban I (222-30)
158
. Urban II  (1088-99)
171.
Urban III  (1185-7)
181. Urban IV  (1261-4)
199.
Urban V  (1362-70)
201.
Urban VI  (1378-89)
227.
Urban VII  (1590)
234.
Urban VIII  (1623-44)
anti-pope
 Ursinus  (366-7)

101.
Valentine  (827)
14.
St. Victor I  (189-98)
152. Victor II  (1055-7)
157.
Victor III  (1086-7)
anti-pope
 Victor IV  (1138)
anti-pope
  Victor V  (1159-64)
59.
Vigilius  (537-55)
76. St. Vitalian  (657-72)

91.
Zacharias  (741-52)
15.
Zephyrinus  (198-217)
41.
St. Zosimus  (417-18)

 

The Popes, in chronological order

AD 900-1000

118. Benedict IV. b. Rome; elected 1 Feb 900; d. July 903.  A priest who had been ordained by Formosus he was "moderate and discreet" (tP) . He crowned as emperor Louis of Borgogna,  shortly afterwards overthrown by Berengar who expelled the emperor from Italy leaving the papacy unprotected and subject to partisan strife. The contemporary chronicler Flodoard of Rheims praised Benedict for his good works among the poor.

119. Leo V. b. Ardea; elected July 903, d. Sept. Sept 903. An obscure parish priest who was probably a compromise choice about whom little is known. After a month in office he  was overthrown by one of his priests, Christopher. He,  in turn was deposed by an army headed by the indomitable Sergius, the anti-Formosan who had held the office briefly five years previously. Leo and Christopher were both imprisoned, and strangled in jail soon after the installation of Sergius who chroniclers claim was responsible for the murder.

anti-pope Christopher  (903-4)

120. Sergius III. b. Rome;  elected 29 Jan, 904; d. 14 April, 911.  Brought into office by the powerful Roman nobility, Theophylact and his wife Theodora who imposed five popes in succession. Sergius nullified all Formosan decisions including his clerical appointments, and declared John and his successors anti-popes.  "A certain shameless strumpet called Theodora at one time was sole monarch of Rome" wrote  Liutprand, Bishop of Cremona, in his history Antapadosis . Liutprand was biographer of Germany's King Otto and his envoy to Rome. "It is commonly believed that Sergius formed a union with (Theo's) daughter, Marozia, and by her had a son, the future pope John XI" (tP). Citing LP as its source, Uz reports that after Patriarch Nicholas I Mysticus refused to allow the Byzantine emperor Leo VI to marry for a fourth time, the pope sent a legate to Constantinople to approve it, whereupon the emperor deposed the patriarch "throwing the Eastern church into a confused period of controversy".

121. Anastasius III. b. Rome; elected April 911; d. June 913. He gained office at the instigation of  the all-powerful Theophylact, head of the militia and papal finances, and the unscrupulous Theodora who boasted of being the power behind the throne (LP) Relations continued to worsen between Rome and Nicholas, the restored patriarch of Constantinople, after the latter's complaint about the approval given to Leo's marriage was apparently unheeded by Anastasius. "Little is known of him except he was a man of good repute" (NCE)

122. Lando. b. Sabina; elected June 913; d. Feb. 914. Son of a noble and the compromise pope of warring factions but otherwise (says tP) "the most shadowy figure who has ever occupied the pontificate" although he is depicted on  one of Pozzi's coins in the British Museum. LPsuggests he was totally under the thumb of Theodora. He died suddenly and mysteriously.

123. John X. b. Tossignano; elected March 914; d. May 928. He had, for nine months, been archbishop of Ravenna when put into office by Theophylact. He revived the Formosus issue and thus "embittered the atmosphere of his pontificate" (tP) The pope crowned Berengar emperor but managed to win a notable battle against the Saracens  without the emperor's help. John was rumored to have been the lover of Theodora, but ran afoul of her daughter Marozia. She  saw the pope as a threat to the authority of her husband Guido, by now ruler of Rome. Together they had  him imprisoned  in Castel Sant'Angelo where he died, "almost certainly suffocated with a pillow" (ODP).  "The first of the popes to be created by a woman and now destroyed by her daughter" wrote Bishop Liutprand.

124. Leo VI. b. Rome; elected May 928; d.  Dec. 928. "Owed his election to Marozia...a stopgap appointment pending the time when Marozia's own son was ready to succeed" (ODP) No rulings, judgments or other forms of communication were allowed out of his office unless they had been cleared with Marozia according to LP. Leo successfully fought the Saracens and Hungarians (ISPR)

125. Stephen VII. b. Rome; elected Dec 928; d. Feb 931. The counts of Tusculum put him in office while Rome was still being governed by Alberic with his mother, Marozia, clearly an influence. Theodora's daughter Marozia, now Marquise of Tuscia, was called "a great whore" by Cardinal Baronius (LP) and accused by the 10th c. chronicler Flodoard of every sexual crime from incest to adultery.

126. John XI. b. Rome; elected March 931; d. Dec. 935, aged about 29. The son of Marozia whose father (according to both Bishop Lieutprand and LP) was Pope Sergius III.  As  pope, John officiated at Marozia's marriage to her brother in law, Italy's King Hugh. Scandalized Romans  urged on by her other son Alberic, had her thrown into jail after which she disappeared from the historical record. Alberic proclaimed himself "prince" of the city, and confined John to ecclesiastical functions ("powerless, lacking all distinction, administering only sacraments" wrote  Flodoard ) and promoted the election of a Roman cardinal and former Benedictine monk as Pope Leo VII.

127.  Leo VII. b. Rome; elected 3 Jan, 936; d. 13 July, 939. A Roman cardinal and former Benedictine monk, his election was at the instigation of Alberic II, the city's secular ruler,  with whose help and that of the reformist movement, he sought to remove all lay interference in the church and to reform monastic life. A reformer he instigated reform of the monasteies, and  condemned witches and fortune tellers in France and Germany. He receives favorable mention in the writings of Flodoard who met and liked him.

128.  Stephen VIII. b. Rome; elected 14 July, 939; d. Oct 942. The new pope owed his election to Alberic, still in control of Rome where he confined himself to uncontroversial ecclesiastical duties. Supported Louis IV of France whose citizens he threatened with excommunication if they did not follow their king. Conflicting historical accounts suggest he may have taken part in a conspiracy against Alberic which ended with his death while imprisoned. Uz declares  that he was  gruesomely tortured to death by Alberic.

129. Marinus II. b. Rome; elected 30 Oct., 942; d. May 946. With the papacy still under the thumb of Alberic,  independent action was stifled but a 16th century historian, quoting from unnamed Vatican sources, suggests that Marinus was a strong  moral presence who restored many churches, patronized the arts and was generous to the poor.

130. Agapitus II. b. Rome; elected 10 May, 946; d. Dec. 955. Elected as Alberic's candidate, he outlived him by one year, but along with the other clergy, was obliged to agree that  both temporal and spiritual power should pass to the ruler's bastard son, Octavian, at Alberic's  death. Agapitus supported France's King Louis in his political disputes but was forbidden  by Alberic to crown as emperor Germany's Otto I who had done much to pacify  Italy.

131. John XII b. Rome; elected 16 Dec, 955, d. 14 May, 964, at age 27. Changing his name from the name of a former pagan emperor, Alberic's 18-year-old son, Octavian, "preferred hunting to church ceremonies and was largely indifferent to religious matters' (tP) He made a 10-year-old boy Bishop of Lodi, attempted to impose celibacy on Italian clergy and lived surrounded by slaves and eunuchs. The monk chronicler Benedict of Soracte noted (Uz) that he "liked to have a collection of women". John reinaugurated the Holy Roman Empire by annointing as emperor, Otto I of Germany  who in turn agreed to defend the enlarged papal state.  
   Once again it became the custom for popes to take an oath of fealty to the emperor.  Later after John had ill-advisedly formed an alliance with the Italian king Berengar, Otto returned and organized a synod at which John was deposed after being accused of gambling and drinking (PRW). Declining to appear, the rejected pope excommunicated all concerned.  When Otto left Rome, John regained the papacy but died in the home of his married lover.TBPcalled him "a Christian Caligula whose crimes were rendered particularly horrific by the office he held".

132. Leo VIII  b. Rome; elected 6 Dec, 963; d. 1 March, 965. Formerly a lay member of the papal civil service, his appointment as pope had been a contentious issue because it came about when Otto's council deposed John, a still-living pope theoretically not subject to temporal authority. When Otto's forces left Rome and John returned, Leo gave way, briefly regaining the office when John died.. His term was interrupted again when Romans re-elected  Benedict V causing a furious Otto to return and once again restore Leo.

133. Benedict V. b. Rome; elected 22 May, 964; d. 4 July 966. In defiance of Emperor Otto I, Romans elected Benedict, one of their own deacons, to the papacy but  the emperor's response was to besiege the city, humiliate Benedict and exile him  to Hamburg where he remained until his death.

134. John XIII.  b. Rome; elected 1 Oct 965; d. 6 Sept., 972. Bishop of Narni, he was the cousin of Alberic and John XI, and grandson of Theophylact. He had been librarian during the licentious papacy of John XII. As Otto's candidate he was unpopular with Romans and for a time was imprisoned and then banished. He returned to Rome under the protection of the emperor whose 12-year-old son Otto he crowned as co-emperor in 967. There was tension between the eastern and western churches which John could do little to alleviate.

135. Benedict VI. b. Rome; elected 19 Jan 973; d. June 974. Backed by the emperor, and winning out over the candidate of the powerful Crescenti family, a former deacon named Franco, his rule was undermined by the death of Otto in 973 and the preoccupations  of Otto II, now 19. The following year aristocratic Romans led by Crescentius, overthrew Benedict and  confined him in the Castel Sant'Angelo. He was thought to have been strangled while there, probably to clear the way for Franco whose supporters now elected him as Boniface VII.
   This papacy was short-lived: angry opponents chased Boniface out of town and on his furtive return  he was rousted again, this time by the emperor's troops. He took refuge in Constantinople, returning to Rome, to briefly to reassume  his "papacy" during Pope John XIV's reign.  It was not until 1904 that he was officially reclassified as an anti-pope.

anti-pope  Boniface VII  (974)

136. Benedict VII. b. Rome; elected Oct 974; d. 10 July, 983. Bishop of Sutri and a distant relative of the Crescenti family,  he proved acceptable to all parties including Emperor Otto II with whom he collaborated in reorganizing the German church and organizing a synod which condemned the growth of simony (the selling of church bishoprics and other benefices). Before his pontificate he is said to have visited Jerusalem as a pilgrim and as pope he made efforts to reconcile the Slav (Eastern) church with Rome.

137. John XIV. b. Pavia; elected Dec 983; d. 20 Aug, 984. Bishop of Pavia  he was the choice of Otto II who died the same year, leaving the imperial throne occupied by his 3-year-old son, and the pope lacking support. The usurper, Boniface VII, returned to Rome and with his allies  imprisoned John who  died in jail, maybe poisoned by the  anti-pope   (says PRW) whose own body, after his death, was dragged through the streets. It was deposited outside the Lateran "where people trampled on it and stabbed it with their spears" (ODP). Power reverted once again to the Crescenti family.

anti-pope  Boniface VII (974; 984-5)

138. John XV. b. Rome; elected Aug 985; d. March 996. Elected by the powerful Crescenti family and other aristocrats, he  "was unpopular with the Roman clergy who accused him of favoring his family in clerical appointments" (BS). He mediated a potential conflict between England and Normandy and assumed the solitary right of creating saints. There were early stirrings of independence by the French church which was questioning the papacy's moral authority. PRW says he was imprisoned and left  to starve to death; BS that he  "fled to Tuscany where he died"; and ODP that he died from a violent attack of fever.

139 Gregory V. b. Saxony; elected 3 May 996; d. 18 Feb 999, aged 30. Arriving in Rome after John's death,  Otto III installed as pope   his 23-year-old  cousin Bruno,  a humble priest. He took the name Gregory and was the first German pope. Three weeks later the pope returned the favor by crowning Otto, then 15, as emperor. During Otto's subsequent absence,  the anti-pope John (who had been his tutor)  was nominated by the  noble  Crescentius  family who resented Gregory as a "foreign pope".  John XVI  reigned for a year,   forcing Gregory to flee  to Pavia. On Emperor Otto's return,  he deposed and mutilated the anti-pope,  beheaded Crescentius and restored to the papal seat Gregory who died shortly afterwards of malaria aged 30.

anti-pope  John XVI (997-8)

140. Sylvester II. b. Auvergne; France. elected 2 April 999; d. 12 May 1003, aged about 58. Formerly Gerbert, archbishop of Rheims and then Ravenna, he became the first French pope.  A scholar and reformer ("one of the most learned men in Europe"--S&S) he had earlier been threatened with excommunication by Pope John XV for upholding the  French bishops who sought to act independently from  Rome. He introduced the Arab system of numbers (ISPR) and continued the fight to end simony, the practise under which laymen paid clergy to grant them benefices. Worked closely with the 20-year-old  Emperor Otto III, whose tutor he had been in science and mathematics and who extended the papal lands. In a premature demonstration of power,  Count Gregory of Tusculum forced both pope and emperor to leave Rome for a two-year period during which Otto died. Sylvester himself may have been murdered. ODP calls him a highly cultured man who "dazzled contemporaries by the versatility and brilliance of his intellect".

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Index of References

OTHER BOOKS consulted or quoted from include:

The Golden Legend (GL);
Butler's Lives of the Saints  (B);
A Catholic Dictionary
(ACD);
The Popes' Rights & Wrongs
  (PRW);
History of the Popes
  (HP);
The Dictionary of Sects, Heresies
&c (DSH);
History of the Popes
  by Leonard Van Renke (LVR);
A Biographical Dictionary of the Saints  (BDS);
The Book of Popes
(BP);
A Source Book 
(SB) for Ancient Church History;
Saints & Their Emblems in English Churches
 (StE);
A Catholic Dictionary
-(CD);
The Popes, a concise biographical history
, (tP);
The Bad Popes
  (TBP);
The Penguin Dictionary of the Saints  (PDS);
New Catholic Encyclopedia (NCE);
The Decline & Fall of the Roman Empire  (D&F);
the Oxford Dictionary of Popes (ODP);
Somni Pontifici Romani
  (ISPR);
the Book of Saints  (BS);
Saints & Sinners (S&S).

For a complete list of references, click here.